Question

Introduction:

Hemoglobin is an essential protein necessary for the transport of oxygen in the body. Biochemists study the molecular activities necessary for the exchange and transport of oxygen between the body cells and lungs.

Requirements:

A. Create an original model of hemoglobin, with clear labels, that shows how oxygen is carried by the molecule.

Note: The inclusion of the following components aids in showing how oxygen is carried: subunits, heme groups, iron atoms, and oxygen molecules.

Note: Take a picture or screenshot of your completed model as evidence that you created it.

1. Explain two differences between the oxygenated and deoxygenated states of hemoglobin.
2. Explain how pH impacts the binding and release of oxygen by hemoglobin.
a. Create an original graph that demonstrates the relationship between hemoglobin’s oxygen binding and oxygen concentration at different pH levels.
3. Create an original diagram, or series of diagrams, with clear labels, that compares the biochemical (protein) structure of hemoglobin to myoglobin.

Note: The inclusion of the following components aids in showing the comparison: subunits, heme groups, and iron atoms.

Note: Take a picture or screenshot of your completed diagram as evidence that you created it.

B. Demonstrate your understanding of sickle cell anemia by doing the following:
1. Create an original diagram that demonstrates the amino acid difference between normal and sickle forms of hemoglobin.

Note: Take a picture or screenshot of your completed diagram. You can include the picture or screenshot as part of your document.

2. Create an original diagram that demonstrates the difference between normal and sickle red blood cells at the cellular level.

Note: Take a picture or screenshot of your completed diagram. You can include the picture or screenshot as part of your document.

3. Explain how diseased cells differ from normal red blood cells in their capacity to transport oxygen.
4. Explain the molecular inheritance of sickle cell anemia by doing the following:
a. Identify the type of inheritance seen in sickle cell anemia.
b. Create an original diagram (e.g., pedigree charts, Punnett squares), or series of simple diagrams, that demonstrates how sickle cell genes are inherited.

Note: Take a picture or screenshot of your completed diagram. You can include the picture or screenshot as part of your document.

C. When you use sources, include all in-text citations and references in APA format

Solution Preview

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The binding of oxygen to hemoglobin leads to several structural changes. The proximal histidine and its helix moves in oxyhemoglobin. Also there is a rupture of some of the noncovalent bonds between the αβ dimers. The heterodimers rotate and slide when hemoglobin changes state from deoxygenated to oxygenated (Baynes & Dominiczak, 2014)....

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