QuestionQuestion

Answer the following questions:

1. How is the reduction potential related to the free energy of a reaction? What predictions can be made regarding strong reducing and oxidizing agents?

2. How much energy is produced by one cycle of the proton motive force? How many ATP will it yield?

3. Outline the steps in the electron transport chain (use reactions when possible) and the number of protons generated that enter the cytoplasm.

4. Using chemical structures shows the conversion of the oxidized form of ubiquinone to the reduced form.

5. Why does the oxidation of NADH yield more energy than the oxidation of FADH2?

6. Describe the mechanism of action of ATP synthase?

7. What is the role of the proton motive force in the biosynthesis of ATP?

8. Using chemical structures, show the relationship between NADH and QH2.

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1. How is the reduction potential related to the free energy of a reaction? What predictions can be made regarding strong reducing and oxidizing agents?

The reduction potential can be defined as the free energy change for the following process
Mn+ +ne => M
Now as per the concept of the chemical potential of the thermodynamics we can say the free energy change i.e. net available energy for work given by gibbs free energy of G =ΔG0+ RTlnQ or ΔG =-RTlnQ where Q is defined as the reaction quotient for the process
Now the considering the free energy is converted into electrical work we can say
ΔG = Welectrical
ΔG = quantity of charge*potential diff
      = - (nF)*Emf of cell
       = - nFEcell
Where n stands for the no of the electron transferred for the process and F=Farraday =96500C = charge of 1 mole of electron....
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