Question 1 2 pts A family of nuclear receptors (transcription fac...

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Question 1 2 pts A family of nuclear receptors (transcription factors), known as PPARs, regulate transcription of genes important in lipid catabolism. PPARa is a member of this family of transcription factors. If one of the gene targets of PPARa for activation is carnitine acyltransferase I (enzyme involved in formation of fatty acyl-carnitine for transport into the mitochondria), what metabolic pathway would be directly affected if PPARa is defective? Fatty acid ß-oxidation Cholesterol biosynthesis Glycolysis Fatty acid synthesis Citric acid cycle Question 2 2 pts Bidirectional DNA synthesis by eukaryotic DNA polymerase (replicase) refers to: synthesis of both the leading and lagging strands of DNA at a replication fork. joining of two Okazaki fragments along the lagging strand. movement of two replication forks out from one origin of replication. activity of type Il topoisomerases ahead of replication forks. All of the above Question 3 2 pts Biosynthesis of cholesterol takes place in the cytosol in four stages. The first stage is a condensation stage in which three (1) condense to form (2) ------- (1) pyruvate; (2) malonyl-CoA (1) acetyl-CoA; (2) malonyl-CoA (1) malonyl-CoA; (2) mevalonate (1) pyruvate; (2) mevalonate (1) acetyl-CoA; (2) mevalonate Question 4 2 pts Conversion of adenine to AMP requires . ATP P-Rib-PP GTP AMP-succinate None of the above Question 5 2 pts During RNA synthesis, an ester bond is formed between the 3' hydroxyl of the terminal ribose and the of the next nucleotide to be incorporated into the RNA. 5' carbon alpha phosphate 1' carbon 2' hydroxyl Question 6 2 pts Fatty acid biosynthesis is characterized by four enzymatic steps: 1) condensation, 2) reduction, 3) dehydration, and 4) reduction. In the FIRST condensation step, what are the two molecules that condense to form the product attached to the acyl carrier protein (ACP)? butyryl-CoA and acetyl-CoA two molecules of acetyl-CoA pyruvate and acetyl-CoA malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA two molecules of malonyl-CoA Question 7 2 pts Following a severe cold which caused a loss of appetite, a one-year-old boy was hospitalized with hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), muscle weakness, and cardiac irregularities. These symptoms were consistent with a defect in carnitine acyltransferase-I and fatty acyl-carnitine transport. A deficiency in carnitine might be expected to interfere with: ketone body formation from acetyl-CoA. palmitate synthesis. mobilization of stored triacylglycerols from adipose tissue. beta-oxidation of fatty acids. transport of fatty acids into cells from the blood. Question 8 2 pts Human chromosome 8 has 146,274,826 base pairs. Approximately how long is the DNA molecule? ~200 mm - ~100 mm ~50 mm ~10 mm ~5 mm Question 9 2 pts In Avery's Bombshell experiment, treatment of with DNase blocked transformation. smooth cell Streptococcus pneumonia cells rough cell Streptococcus pneumonia cells smooth cell Streptococcus pneumoniae cell-free extract rough cell Streptococcus pneumoniae cell-free extract None of the above Question 10 2 pts In de novo purine biosynthesis, inosine monophosphate (IMP) is subsequently converted to AMP UMP TMP - CMP OMP Question 11 2 pts Individuals with kwashiorkor are unable to degrade arginine. improve when placed on a high-energy diet. have a negative nitrogen balance. have increased brain function. have increased protein biosynthesis. Question 12 2 pts In order to generate ATP from the energy captured in the form of reduced NADH from glycolysis, which of the following is required? A shuttle that functions to permit reduced electron carriers, either in the form of NADH or FADH2, to be indirectly transported into the mitochondrial matrix. An adenine nucleotide translocase that delivers ADP and Pi to the inner membrane space of the mitochondrion. A transporter for NADH that is produced in the cytosol that directly transports NADH into the mitochondrion. A shuttle which functions to transport citrate into the mitochondrion for reduction to malate and regeneration of NADH in the mitochondrial matrix. Nothing is required to convey cytosolic NADH into the mitochondria; NADH produced in glycolysis freely enters the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Question 13 2 pts In the endogenous pathway for plasma lipoprotein transport, what lipoprotein is produced in the liver for delivery of cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues (i.e., muscle, adipose)? LDL Chylomicrons HDL VLDL Bile salts Question 14 2 pts In the following reaction, a(n) (1) covalent intermediate is formed from (2) . o o - A o N NH HN N N N N A N N Rib-5'-P Rib-5°-P (1) AMP-IMP; (2) ATP + Aspartate + IMP (1) AMP-XMP; (2) GTP + Aspartate + XPP (1) Phosphoryl-XMP; (2) ATP + Aspartate + XPP (1) Phosphoryl-IMP; (2) GTP + Aspartate + IMP None of the above Question 15 2 pts In the joining of Okazaki fragments in prokaryotes, (1) digests the RNA primer, and (2) synthesizes the DNA that replaces the primer RNA. (1) DNA polymerase I; (2) DNA polymerase I (1) FEN1; (2) DNA polymerase 8 (delta) (1) primase; (2) DNA polymerase I (1) FEN1; (2) DNA polymerase € (epsilon) Question 16 2 pts In the third step of ß oxidation of fatty acids, the following reaction takes place, in which the ß- hydroxyl group is oxidized to a ß-keto group. Identify (A) and (B) in the reaction pathway. A B HO o R H2 C H2 il 11, - dehydrogenase B-hydroxyacyl.CoA B-ketoacyl-CoA A = NAD+ and B = NADH + H+ A = FAD and B = FADH2 A = H+ and B = H2O A = ATP and B = ADP + Pi Question 17 2 pts is an allosteric activator of bacterial aspartate transcarbamoylase. ATP CTP UTP GTP None of the above Question 18 2 pts Ketone bodies are important for energy production during periods of starvation. Ketone bodies are produced by (1) and are exported to supply energy molecules for (2) . (1) brain; (2) liver (1) extrahepatic tissue (muscle, heart, brain, kidney etc.); (2) liver (1) adipose (fat tissue); (2) liver (1) adipose (fat tissue); (2) extrahepatic tissue (muscle, heart, brain, kidney etc.) (1) liver; (2) extrahepatic tissue (muscle, heart, brain, kidney etc.) Question 19 2 pts Ketone bodies are important for energy production during periods of starvation. Ketone bodies are produced by (1) and are exported to supply energy molecules for (2) . (1) brain; (2) liver (1) extrahepatic tissue (muscle, heart, brain, kidney etc.); (2) liver (1) adipose (fat tissue); (2) liver (1) adipose (fat tissue); (2) extrahepatic tissue (muscle, heart, brain, kidney etc.) (1) liver; (2) extrahepatic tissue (muscle, heart, brain, kidney etc.) Question 20 2 pts must be transported out of mitochondria for efficient synthesis of urea. Ornithine Glutamate N-acetylaspartate Citrulline Arginine Question 21 2 pts N-acetyl-L-glutamate formation is allosterically activated by: acetyl-CoA. argenine. asparagine. glutamate. None of the above Question 22 2 pts Plasma lipoproteins are comprised of which of the following components? Apolipoproteins Cholesterol and cholesteryl esters Triacylglycerols Phospholipids All of the above Question 23 2 pts Presynthetic error control by DNA polymerase III is based on: removal of mismatched base pairs by the 3'->5' exonuclease activity. structure of the catalytic site preferentially selecting tautomeric base nucleotides for synthesis of DNA. rapid reversion of tautomeric bases to the normal conformation. structure of the DNA synthesis catalytic site excluding non-Watson and Crick base pairs removal of mismatched base pairs by the 5'->3' exonuclease activity. Question 24 2 pts The (1) protein in DNA polymerase III serves the same function as (2) in eukaryotic replicase. (1) single strand binding (SSB); (2) FEN1 (1) DnaB; (2) MCM (1) core polymerase; (2) DNA polymerase a (alpha) (1) primase; (2) PCNA (1) ß (beta) clamp; (2) RFC Question 25 2 pts The beta-subunit of ATP synthase can assume three different conformational states: loose affinity binding, high affinity binding, and an empty state. What process drives the conformational change from a high affinity state to an empty state during the synthesis of ATP? Electrons flowing through the Fo complex cause a conformational change in the C- subunit of Fo, and this drives the change from a high affinity state to an empty state. Protons flowing through the Fo complex drive a rotational change in the gamma-subunit of F1, and this drives the change from a high affinity state to an empty state. wis The conformation change from a high affinity state to an empty state is driven by the energy of ATP binding. The beta-subunits migrate from the matrix to the inner membrane space, and the energy of this process drives the conformational change. Question 26 2 pts The central dogma of molecular biology states that information in the cell is stored in the form of (1) , and is transmitted to (2) through a (3) intermediate. (1) RNA, (2) lipids, (3) protein (1) DNA, (2) RNA, (3) protein (1) RNA, (2) carbohydrate, (3) DNA (1) DNA, (2) protein, (3) RNA (1) protein, (2) DNA, (3) RNA Question 27 2 pts The feedback inhibitors for de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis are: GTP, ATP & IMP. GDP, ADP & IMP. GMP, AMP & IMP. GMP, XMP & IMP. AMP, XMP & IMP. Question 28 2 pts The following metabolite is formed from: NH2 H2 H o CH C N NH C C C C H2 H2 o HO HN C O CH CH: O - C II o Ornithine, ATP, and succinate Ornithine, ATP, and aspartate Citrulline, ATP, and succinate Citrulline, ATP, and aspartate Arginine, ATP, and succinate Question 29 2 pts The function of hormone-sensitive lipase is To prevent activation of fatty acids by either glucagon or epinephrine. To provide a mechanism for liberating stored fatty acids from skeletal muscle myoctes so the fatty acids can be distributed to other tissues. To provide a mechanism for liberating stored fatty acids from adipocytes (fat cells) so the fatty acids can be distributed to other tissues. To breakdown triacylglycerols from the diet into fatty acids and glycerol. All of the above. Question 30 2 pts The glutamine synthetase reaction forms a(n) intermediate during catalysis. glutamyl-phosphate glutamyl-AMP aspartyl-AMP acyl-thiolester enzyme None of the above Question 31 2 pts The glutamine synthetase reaction forms a(n) intermediate during catalysis. glutamyl-phosphate glutamyl-AMP aspartyl-AMP acyl-thiolester enzyme None of the above Question 32 2 pts The malate-aspartate shuttle in the mitochondria is required because: citrate that is produced in the mitochondrial matrix is transported out of the mitochondria. ATP, ADP and Pi require a transporter moving ATP out of the mitochondria, and ADP and Pi into the mitochondria. reducing equivalents in the form of NADH that are generated in the cytosol from glycolysis can be regenerated in the mitochondrial matrix. fatty acyl-CoA in the cytosol must be transported into the mitochondrial matrix for ß oxidation. Question 33 2 pts The overall equation for the synthesis of a fatty acid is the following: 8 Acetyl-CoA + 7ATP + 14 NADPH + 14H+ Palmitate (16:0) + 8 CoA + 7 ADP + 7 Pi+14 NADP+ + 6 H2O In what reaction step in the overall synthesis of a fatty acid is the ATP required? The first reduction of the carbonyl group at C-3 to form a hydroxyl on ß-hydroxybutyry|- ACP. The second reduction step to reduce the double bond to a single bond to form butyryl- ACP. The formation of malonyl-CoA. The condensation step between malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA to form acetoacetyl-ACP. The first oxidation step with the transfer of a pair of electrons to FAD. Question 34 2 pts The pantetheine group that makes up both Coenzyme A and Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) is derived from the diet in the form of Vitamin B5. What metabolic pathway may be disrupted by a deficiency of Vitamin B5? Fatty acid synthesis Glycogen Synthesis Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Attachment of a head group to phosphatidic acid to form a membrane phospholipid Question 35 2 pts The synthesis of PRPP (phospho-ribosyl pyrophosphate) requires: GTP. ribose-5-phosphate. ATP. CTP. None of the above Question 36 2 pts Transamination from glutamate to pyruvate forms: glycine. alanine. glutamine. serine. cysteine. Question 37 2 pts Using Chargaff's Rules, which of the following statements about genomic base pair content is TRUE? Senior citizens have higher genomic AT content in their brains than 21 year olds. Malnutrition has no significant effect on the genomic base pair content of a person's muscles. Since GC base pairs are more stable than AT, Alaskans typically have slightly higher genomic GC contents than Floridians. Human racial differences are reflected in increased genomic GC content in native Americans as compared to Africans. The genomic AT content in human lung tissue is equal to the AT content in shark gills. Question 38 2 pts What intermediate must be formed in biosynthesis of cysteine? homoserine lactone thiamin pyrophosphate gamma-glutamyl-cysteine S-adenosyl-methionine None of the above Question 39 2 pts What other reactants are required in the following step in nucleotide biosynthesis? COOH o 3 N COOH o N NE is N NH2 N NH2 HO,PO HO>PO. o o OH OH OH OH ATP + Glutamate ATP - Aspartate GTP+Glutamate GTP+Aspartate None of the above Question 40 2 pts When fatty acids are needed in target tissues, the hormone (1) stimulates a second messenger cascade that results in the phosphorylation of (2) in adipocytes (fat cells), which hydrolyzes stored triacylglycerols to release free fatty acids. (1) epinephrine; (2) glycogen phosphorylase (1) insulin; (2) lipoprotein lipase (1) glucagon; (2) hormone-sensitive lipase (1) glucagon; (2) lipoprotein lipase (1) insulin; (2) protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) Question 41 2 pts Which of the following is correct? Excess ammonia depletes alpha-keto-glutarate. 7.3 Excess ammonia lowers the pH, resulting in reduced rates of glycolysis. Excess ammonia lowers mitochondrial pH. Excess ammonia improves phosphate uptake by mitochondria. Excess ammonia is rarely toxic to humans. Question 42 2 pts Which of the following metabolites is formed by D-amino acid oxidase? Superoxide Hydrogen peroxide Oxidized lipoamide NAD+ None of the above Question 43 2 pts Which of the following is NOT necessary for the synthesis of ATP during the oxidation of NADH by coupled oxidative phosphorylation? Oxygen, O2 A higher concentration of protons in the mitochondrial inner membrane space than the mitochondrial matrix. ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) Complex Il Complex I Question 44 2 pts Which of the following statements is FALSE with regard to the process of the operation of the FoF1 ATP synthase in oxidative phosphorylation? The FoF1 complex contains three alpha/beta-subunits that function to synthesize ATP on the beta-subunit. The c-subunits in the c-ring rotate together as a unit around an axis perpendicular to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The alpha/beta-subunits of the F1 complex rotate in conjunction with the rotation of the gamma-subunit of F1 to synthesize ATP. The synthesis of ATP occurs in a domain associated with the F1 component of the ATP synthase. The alpha/beta-subunits of the F1 complex change conformation in association with their interaction with the rotating gamma-subunit of F1. Question 45 2 pts Which of the following contains the highest percentage of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters? Chylomicrons VLDL LDL HDL None of the above contains cholesteryl esters. Question 46 2 pts Which of the following amino acids can be produced from an essential amino acid in a single enzyme-catalyzed reaction? methionine tyrosine cysteine valine leucine Question 47 2 pts Which of the following amino acids does not undergo transamination? tyrosine tryptophan lysine phenylalanine histidine Question 48 2 pts Which of the following is an allosteric activator of mammalian Carbamoyl Synthetase I? NADH arginine N-acetylglutamate argininosuccinate none of the above Question 49 2 pts Which of the following cofactors/coenzymes is involved in tyrosine formation from phenylalanine? Enzyme-bound tetrahydrobiopterin Enzyme-bound biotin Enzyme-bound biocytin Enzyme-bound cobalamin Enzyme-bound lipoic acid Question 50 2 pts Which of the following amino acids is a good source for both glucose and citrate? Tryptophan Lysine Alanine Threonine Histidine

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1 1st Option Beta oxidation of fatty acids
2 1st Option Leading and lagging at replication fork
3 Fifth option Acetyl coA and Mevalonate
4 2nd option PRPP
5 2nd option alpha phosphate
6 4th option Malonyl coA and acetyl CoA
7 4th option Beta oxidation of fatty acids...

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