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Which of the following statements is correct? Capping of mRNAs occurs about 20 nucleotides downstream of a specific sequence in the RNA. Capping of mRNAs occurs about 20 nucleotides upstream of a specific sequence in the RNA. Capping of mRNAs involves formation of a 2'-5' triphosphate bridge between the RNA and 7-methylguanosine. Capping of tRNAs involves the covalent attachment of a 7-methyl guanosine residue. Capping of mRNAs involves formation of a 5'-5' triphosphate bridge between the RNA and 7-methylguanosine. Which of the following is NOT a feature of the reaction catalyzed by RNA polymerases? The enzyme uses a special cofactor, with 3 Asp residues coordinating 2 Mg2+ ions It involves nucleophilic attack by a 3’ –OH group The enzyme uses exonuclease activity for proof-reading Fill in the blank The __________ or noncoding strand of DNA serves as the template for RNA synthesis. Match each of the following: rRNA tRNA mRNA RNA polymerase antisense strand sense strand 1. Strand of DNA that is complementary to mRNA 2. Delivers amino acids to the ribosom 3. Multisubunit enzyme that catalyzes transcription 4. Strand of DNA that is the same as the mRNA, except that U is replaced by T 5. Constitutes two-thirds of the ribosomal mass 6. Nucleotide sequences direct protein synthesis Which of the following is the most accurate description of a gene? It is the sequence of DNA that codes for a protein or a functional RNA species, including. It is the sequence of DNA that codes for a protein or a functional RNA species. It is the sequence of DNA that codes for a protein or a functional RNA species, including intervening sequences and sequences that participate in initiating or terminating transcription (and translation). It is the sequence of DNA that codes for a protein or a functional RNA species, including intervening sequences. Match each of the following: RNA polymerase I (RNAP I) RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) Transcription factors 1. Found in the nucleoplasm, synthesizes mRNA precursors 2. Found in the nucleoli, synthesizes the precursors for most rRNAs 3. Proteins that bind to promoter regions for initiation of Transcription 4. Found in the nucleoplasm, synthesizes the precursors for tRNAs and others Which of the following best describes the relationship between prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases? Eukaryotic RNA polymerases are similar in size and shape to the prokaryotic ones, but the individual subunits are not closely related. They are nearly identical in terms of subunit composition. They are similar, but eukaryotic RNA polymerases tend to have 2-3 additional subunits. They have homologous core subunits (α, β, β’), but eukaryotes have as many as 10 additional subunits. Match each of the following: Primary transcripts Cap structure Poly(A) tail Introns Exons 1. Expressed sequences that are spliced together 2. Non-expressed intervening sequences that are excised from transcripts 3. Eukaryotic modification of primary transcripts at the 3' end 4. Eukaryotic modification of primary transcripts at the 5' end 5. The immediate products of transcription Which of the following correctly identifies the reactions catalyzed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases? Aminoacyl-ATP <―> aminoacyl-AMP + PPi Aminoacyl-AMP + tRNA <―> aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP Amino acid + tRNA + ATP <―> aminoacyl-ADP + tRNA-AMP Aminoacyl-ADP + tRNA-AMP <―> aminoacyl-tRNA + ATP Amino acid + ATP <―> aminoacyl-AMP + PPi Aminoacyl-AMP + tRNA <―> aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP Aminoacyl-ATP + tRNA <―> aminoacyl-ATP-tRNA Aminoacyl-ATP-tRNA <―> aminoacyl-tRNA + AMP + PPi Aminoacyl-AMP + ATP <―> aminoacyl-ATP + AMP Aminoacyl-ATP + tRNA <―> aminoacyl-tRNA + ATP Which of the groups here shows synonymous codons? 1 2 3 4 5 Compare DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, poly(A) polymerase,and CCA-adding polymerase with respect to requirement for a primer, template, and substrates. Enzyme Primer Template Nucleotides DNA polymerase RNA polymerase poly (A) polymerase CCA-adding polymerase Which of the following statements is most correct? General transcription factors are required to help RNA polymerase in the initiation of transcription. Promoters are usually located 3’ on the coding strand of the gene they regulate. Enhancers bind to special DNA sequences known as activators. Fill in the blank In eukaryotes, primary transcripts are called pre-mRNAs or __________ (hnRNA) Which statement does NOT describe a function carried out by ribosomes? The ribosome binds aminoacyl-tRNA. The ribosome binds mRNA. The ribosome catalyzes synthesis of aminoacyl-tRNA. The ribosome catalyzes peptide bond formation.

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Biochemistry Questions (230 words)
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