Discuss the use of the green fluorescent protein and FRET in elucid...

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Discuss the use of the green fluorescent protein and FRET in elucidating the mechanism of action of protein kinase A (PKA).
a) What is the green fluorescent protein and wht/how is it used in general?
b) What is meant by FRET?
c) How where these tools used with PKA? Focus on the experimental details.
d) What conclusions were drawn from these experiments?

Discuss the difference between the action of the two drugs isoproterenol and propranolol.
a) What is the structure of each of these drugs?
b) For what compound are they structural analogs?
c) What is the site of action of each of these drugs?
d) How do they function?

Discuss the relationship between apoptosis and signal transduction.
a) What is apoptosis?
b) What is the relationship between apoptosis and signal transduction?

Discuss the difference between the effects of glucagon and epinephrine.
a) What is the function of glucagon versus the function of epinephrine?
b) What organs are affected by each of these hormones?
c) What pathways are activated or inhibited by each of these hormones in each of the affected organs?

Discuss the action of phorbol esters as tumor promoters. Be sure to correlate this to signaling pathways. Include relevant chemical structures and reactions.
a) What is the structure of a phorbol ester? What is the source of these compounds?
b) For what a phorbol ester a structural analog?
c) What is the normal pathway involving the compound in part b?
d) What is the effect of a phorbol ester on that pathway?
e) How is that related to tumorigenesis?

Both the cholera and pertussis toxins act on GCPR complexes. Discuss how the actions of these toxins are similar and how they are different. Include relevant structures and reactions.
a) What protein if the target of each of these toxins?
b) What is the structure of the relevant part of each of these toxins?
c) What amino acid is covalently modified by each of these toxins?
d) What is the result of each of these modifications?

Why might the insulin hormone receptor be called membrane-associated allosteric enzymes? (I.e., compare the action of hormone receptors to that of allosteric enzymes. Be sure to discuss both aspects of the question: cellular location and allostery.)
a) How does allostery operate?
b) what is the cellular location of the insulin receptor?
c) How does the insulin receptor operate?

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