PART 1 1) What is biotransformation? 2) What is the general outco...

  1. Home
  2. Homework Library
  3. Chemistry
  4. Biochemistry
  5. PART 1 1) What is biotransformation? 2) What is the general outco...

QuestionQuestion

PART 1
1) What is biotransformation?
2) What is the general outcome in terms of chemical properties?
3) What class or group of proteins are involved?

PART 2
4) List and briefly describe five different metabolic mechanisms for biotransforming xenobiotics from both phase I and phase II (also give which phase they are a part of).

PART 3
Some epoxides are highly reactive compounds. (If you use sources other than the textbook, provide a link or a citation.)
5) Describe the biotransformation process for converting a xenobiotic into an epoxide metabolite.
6) Give an example and name the enzyme involved.

PART 4
7) One well-known pathways of biotransformation is the transformation of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) into acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). Then acetaldehyde is then transformed to acetate (CH3COO-). Link for more information on this reaction here: https://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa72/aa72.htm
For these three molecules give the following (Note: searching for acetic acid instead of acetate may be beneficial):   [I recommend exploring chemicals with https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/]
a. The LD50 - give species and route of administration as well as cite your source!
b. The boiling point (at 760 mm Hg)
c. The molecular weight
Also answer these questions:
d. What are the two enzymes that are mainly responsible for these two steps?
e. Is this a Phase I or Phase II reaction? What type? Why?
f. Describe the change in the polarity of ethanol to acetate. What does that mean for what is likely to happen to these molecules in the body?
g. Think about the molecular properties of these molecules. How are their boiling points and polarity connected? Compare the boiling points to non-polar propane (-44 °F), which has a similar molecular weight.
h. Look up information on vapor pressure from a reputable source. How is boiling point connected to vapor pressure?

Solution PreviewSolution Preview

These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

Biotransformation
PART 1
1) What is biotransformation?
Biotransformation is a process of chemical transformation of a substance into the chemical with altered properties in the biological system.
2) What is the general outcome in terms of chemical properties?
Chemical properties are changed, generally to less toxic for the organism.
3) What class or group of proteins are involved?
Enzymes are involved in biotransformation.
PART 2
4) List and briefly describe five different metabolic mechanisms for biotransforming xenobiotics from both phase I and phase II (also give which phase they are a part of).
Oxidation is a Phase I metabolic mechanism that adds oxygen atoms to or removes...

By purchasing this solution you'll be able to access the following files:
Solution.docx.

$25.00
for this solution

or FREE if you
register a new account!

PayPal, G Pay, ApplePay, Amazon Pay, and all major credit cards accepted.

Find A Tutor

View available Biochemistry Tutors

Get College Homework Help.

Are you sure you don't want to upload any files?

Fast tutor response requires as much info as possible.

Decision:
Upload a file
Continue without uploading

SUBMIT YOUR HOMEWORK
We couldn't find that subject.
Please select the best match from the list below.

We'll send you an email right away. If it's not in your inbox, check your spam folder.

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
Live Chats