Question

Distinguish between a food additive and a flavour enhancer. Give three examples of each.

Vanillin is the primary compound responsible for vanilla flavour. Is artificial vanillin different from vanillin extracted from a natural vanilla pod? Explain why or why not.

Explain the difference between selective breeding and gene transfer (transgenics) as methods to produce GM foods.

Below is a list of additives and an example of foods that may contain them. Complete questions i, ii, iii for each additive.
a)   Calcium silicate is added to powdered drink mixes (i.e. Gatorade)
b)   Ascorbic acid is added to canned peaches
c)   Disodium EDTA is added to canned kidney beans
d)   Turmeric is added to margarine or cheese
e)   Sodium benzoate is added to sandwich meat
f)    Carnauba wax is added to gum or candies
g)   MSG is added to oyster saucefind an additive in one of the foods you eat (additives are usually listed towards the end of the ingredient list since they are added in small quantities)

I.    Use the search function on the Health Canada website (To narrow your search, type the additive’s name followed by food i.e. calcium silicate food) or Health Canada’s list of Permitted Food Additives, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/list/index-eng.php#a1 to find the additive. Explain why each chemical is added to food. List the category (i.e. preservative) as well as a description of what the additive does.
II.   Identify the additive as either a compound or a mixture.
III. If the additive is a single compound give its chemical formula and structure.

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Q3. Explain the difference between selective breeding and gene transfer (transgenics) as methods to produce GM foods.
Ans: Genetically modified food can be produced with improved quality, higher yield, and content specificity by various methods. Selective breeding is a conventional breeding and also called as hybridization or cross pollination which involves the long process to several generation for desired changes or characteristics. The desired characteristic genes are dominated over other and plants breeded until the development of these trait. Only existing trait can incorporated. Whereas gene transfer (transgenic) method is modern technique which involve genetically engineering. Through it one can insert single or multiple specific designer genes into a plant's genome through laboratory techniques, such as modified Agrobacterium or biolistics (gene gun). This method is more efficient than selective breeding. It can also develop the entirely new trait....

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