These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.It is used as a flavoring agent in food and pharmaceutical product specifically its methyl, ethyl or benzyl esters (Eilerman & Staff, 2000). Several other derivatives of cinnamic acid reported being antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer, antimalarial, antituberculotic, antifungal, etc. It is commonly used as an intermediate for biosynthesis of various other natural products like flavonoids, stilbenes, coumarins, lignols, catechin, etc. In the laboratory, it can be synthesized via Perkin reaction involving acetic anhydride and benzaldehyde condensation (Perkin, W. H. (1877) or Knövenaegel condensation reaction involving benzaldehyde and malonic acid condensation (Kolb et al., 1990).
2. Proposed biosynthetic routes:
Biosynthesis is a process involving the synthesis of complex molecules in the living organism. Several reports by various scientists suggested that some enterobacteria, like Photorhabdus luminescens (P. luminescens), can be helpful in biosynthesis of cinnamic acid from phenylalanine via phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) enzyme which catalyzing the reaction...
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