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Models of the Hydrogen Atom 1. Open the “Models of the Hydrogen Atom” simulation 2. Be sure to turn the light beam “on.” 3. Before beginning the simulation answer the following questions about hydrogen: # of protons: # of electrons: Electron configuration: Outer shell: 4. Using resources from the internet, define a photon. Is the photon a particle or a wave? 5. What determines the color of a photon? 6. Making sure the “experiment” is hi-lighted white, observe what is happening while photons are being sent through a hydrogen atom. Write your observations below: 7. When determining how an atom works, scientists witnessed something similar to what you are witnessing now. They then deduced how the atom must be organized. What do you think is making the photons deflect? Is every color deflected? 8. Change the Light control from “White” to “Monochromatic”. Are photons still being deflected? 9. Click the “show spectrometer” box. 10. Change the colors of the photons by moving the handle up and down the spectrum. Record your observations in the chart below: Color Observation UV Purple Green 11. Click the “Show absorption wavelengths” box. 12. What is the spectrometer box keeping track of? 13. Now that you’ve theorized about what is happening to the photons of energy, hi-light the prediction button white and observe other scientist’s theories about the atom. ** Be sure to return your wavelength to 97 nm and alternate between it and white light.** Flip back and forth between “experiment” and “predictions” to compare the two. 14. Complete the chart below by comparing the 6 models with the experiment (what is really happening) and explain why the model does/does not explain the experimental observations. Atomic Model Observations How does it support or not support the experiment? Billiard Ball ** notice the spectrometer** Plum Pudding Classical Solar System Bohr De Broglie Schrodinger 15. With the Bohr’s model selected, click the “Show electron energy level diagram.” 16. Using the Electron Energy Level Diagram and the spectrometer, describe what is happening to hydrogen’s one electron. 17. In the help menu, click on transitions. Enter the first 5 wavelengths into the wavelength box and observe what happens to the electron. Does this support your statement in number 16? If not, readjust your statement to explain the new behavior of the electron. 18. Now enter wavelengths that are not listed. What do you observe? Does this support your statement in number 16? If not, readjust your statement to explain the new behavior of the electron. MRI Questions 1. While x-rays are used to image bones, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to examine tissues within the body by detecting where hydrogen atoms (H atoms) are and their environment (e.g. is the H atom part of water (H2O) or is it part of a long hydrocarbon chain as in a fat molecule). a. A fundamental feature of an MRI machine is a very strong background magnetic field with the magnetic field lines running along the length of the magnet core where the patient is placed. i. (0.5 pt each) Consider the following arrangements of bar magnets in a strong magnetic field. For which of the following magnets is the potential energy lowest? (if more than one, check all that apply) A B C D For which of the following magnets is the potential energy highest? (if more than one, check all that apply) A B C D If the bar magnet is representing a magnetic moment of a proton, which represents the spin-up (spin=+1/2) case? A B C D Which represents the spin-down (spin=-1/2) case? A B C D If  is a magnetic moment represented by the bar magnet and B is the strength of the external magnetic field, what is the difference in energy between the lowest and highest potential energy states? A B C D E F ii. (0.75 pt) Why do they use as strong as possible magnetic field in an MRI machine? (check all that apply) a. Because the magnetic field causes the hydrogen nucleus to want to align its spin (that is, the magnetic moment associated with its spin) with this strong magnetic field b. Because the magnetic field causes the electrons in the hydrogen atoms to want to align their spin (that is, the magnetic moment associated with their spin) with this strong magnetic field c. Because the magnetic field causes molecules with hydrogen in them to want to align their molecular spin (that is, the magnetic moment associated with their molecular spin) with this strong magnetic field d. Because a stronger magnetic field increases the energy difference between a spin that is aligned and a spin that are anti-aligned with the magnetic field. e. Because a stronger magnetic field reduces the energy difference between a spin that is aligned and spins that is anti-aligned with the magnetic field. iii. (0.25 pts each) Which of the following are true? True False It requires energy to flip the nuclear magnetic moment of an atom from aligned with the magnetic field to anti-aligned with the magnetic field. True False Even when there is no external magnetic field, it still requires energy to flip the spin from spin-up to spin-down. True False When placed in an external magnetic field, there is a continuum of energies that nuclear magnetic moments can have depending on their orienation. True False In MRI, photons of just the right energy are used to flip the spin of the hydrogen nucleus. True False More visible photons absorbed during the MRI measurement indicates more hydrogen atoms in the sample being measured. True False At room temperature, 300K, thermal energy is enough to occasionally flip the nuclear magnetic moment of an atom even in the strong magnetic field of the MRI. True False When a patient is lying in the MRI magnet and the strong magnetic field (e.g. 1 Tesla) is on, but no radio waves are present, all of the hydrogen atoms in their body will have their nuclear magnetic moments in their lowest energy state, aligned with the field. iv. (essay) An MRI essentially detects H-atoms by looking at radio wave absorption and re-emission. Why are such strong magnetic fields necessary? Under what conditions would an H-atom within this strong magnetic field absorb a radio wave and what about the H-atom changes when this absorption occurs? v. (1 pt) If radiowaves of 1 MHz are absorbed by the H-atoms, what is the energy difference (in eV) between the spin-up and spin-down states? (1 pt) If you have 1 MHz radiowaves enegy passing through 1 cm3 (1 g) of water in this strong magnetic field and you assume that 1 hydrogen atom in 10,000 ends up absorbing a photon, how much energy (in mJ) is absorbed? (Hint each molecule of water weighs 3 x 10-23 g). vi. (0.5 pts) If the strength of the magnetic field created by the MRI device decreased, what would happen? (Check all that apply) More 1 MHz radiowaves would be absorbed. Fewer, but still some 1 MHz radiowaves would be absorbed. No 1 MHz radiowaves would be absorbed. The energy difference between the spin-up and spin-down states would decrease. The energy difference between the spin-up and spin-down states would stay the same. The energy difference between the spin-up and spin-down states would increase. b. In order to obtain a 3-D image of the tissue within the body, an MRI device will use electromagnets to vary the strength of the magnetic field across the large hollow cylindrical magnet into which the person is placed. (This variation in strength is just a small change on top of the strong magnetic field. For example, on the left side of the hole through the magnet the strength will be slightly smaller than on the right side but it points in the same direction and is nearly the same strength on both right and left sides.) i. (essay) Describe how varying the strength of the magnetic field across the tube through the magnet where person is located allows you to measure the number of H-atoms in a just localized region or slice. ii. (1 pt) The magnetic field varies by 1 tesla from the left side of the tube to the right side. The magnetic field strength at the left side (x = 0 meters) is 2 Tesla. The strength increases linearly until it reaches 3 Tesla at the opposite side of the tube (x=1 meter). Below are 2 representations of this gradient in the magnetic field. The technician measures some absorption of 120 MHz radio waves. At what value of x (in meters) were the hydrogen atoms that absorbed these radio wave photons located? (Note that the nuclear magnetic moment for hydrogen is 8.8 x 10-8 eV/Tesla) iii. (essay) In many of the imaging processes, e.g. the microscope and the electron microscope, the resolution is limited by the wavelength of the light or the matter to a size scale comparable to the wavelength. Explain why this method of obtaining a 3D image gives an image with resolution that is much smaller than the 300 m wavelength of these radiowaves. 2. A form of MRI (usually called nuclear magnetic resonance) is used a great deal to analyze what atoms are in an unknown substance. Every chemistry department has several NMR machines for carrying out chemical analysis. The nuclear magnetic moment of a nitrogen atomic nucleus is about 1/14 th as large as the spin of a hydrogen nucleus, and for a sodium nucleus the magnetic moment is about 1/4 as big as for hydrogen. How could you modify an MRI machine to make it into an NMR machine that would detect the amount of nitrogen and sodium atoms in a chunk of material relative to the amount of hydrogen a. (0.75 pt) To modify the MRI to measure amount of Nitrogen, which of the following changes would work (we are making only one change at a time)? (check all that apply) Use radiowaves with 1/14th the energy Use radiowaves with 14 times the energy Use radiowaves with 1/4th the energy Use radiowaves with 4 times the energy Use a magnetic field strength 1/14th as large Use a magnetic field strength 14 times larger Use a magnetic field strength 1/4th as large Use a magnetic field strength 4 times larger b. (0.75 pt) To modify the MRI to measure the amount of Sodium, which of the following changes would work (we are making only one change at a time)? (check all that apply) Use radiowaves with 1/14th the energy Use radiowaves with 14 times the energy Use radiowaves with 1/4th the energy Use radiowaves with 4 times the energy Use a magnetic field strength 1/14th as large Use a magnetic field strength 14 times larger Use a magnetic field strength 1/4th as large Use a magnetic field strength 4 times larger c. (1 pt) If radio waves of 1.5 MHz are absorbed by unknown atoms in a gas, what is the energy difference (in eV) between the spin-up and spin-down states? i. (0.5 pts) If this is the energy required to flip the spin in an applied magnetic field of 0.035T, what is the magnetic moment? ii. (0.5 pts) What atoms are in the gas? (enter periodic table symbol)

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4. Using resources from the internet, define a photon. Is the photon a particle or a wave?

Ans: A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic interaction and the basic unit of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. In other words a photon is a little packet of energy which can carry electromagnetic radiation.
Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles.

5. What determines the color of a photon?

Ans: The "color" of a photon is determined by its frequency.

6. Making sure the “experiment” is hi-lighted white, observe what is happening while photons are being sent through a hydrogen atom. Write your observations below:

Ans: When a photon hits the hydrogen atom the electron absorbs the energy (photon), and goes up one energy level. The photons are deflected from their path by hydrogen atom.

7. When determining how an atom works, scientists witnessed something similar to what you are witnessing now. They then deduced how the atom must be organized. What do you think is making the photons deflect? Is every color deflected?

Ans: Photon behaves as particle and atom also, in such case when photon strikes to atom they are deflected from their path. Yes, every color deflected....
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