1. Describe the structure of the periodic table, using the following key terms:
Atomic Number, Group, Energy level, Outer electron, Period
2. Outline the historic development of the periodic table, being sure to include the work of Dӧbereiner, Newlands and Mendeleyev.
3. Evaluate the structure of the periodic table, identifying
a. how it is used and how its structure allows scientist to understanding and
predict the nature of all materials.
b. Any problems with its structure or inconsistencies in presentation (the article
at http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php shows
other versions of the periodic table which may help you in your evaluation)
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1) Describe the structure of the periodic table:
An atom constitutes of subatomic particles – protons, neutrons (in the nucleus of the atom) and electrons (in the electronic shell of the atom), where the number of positively charged protons is equal to the number of negatively charged electrons, therefore the atoms are not charged. The chemical properties of an atom depend on its electronic configuration, unique to each element, which shows the total number of electrons and their arrangement in the energy levels of the electron shells. Electrons that are mostly responsible for chemical and physical properties of elements, are found in the outer electronic subshell (outer electrons - valence electrons).
Elements in the periodic table are arranged in order of increasing number of protons (Atomic Number (Z)). The periodic table consists of vertical Columns (Groups) and horizontal Rows (Periods). A new row (period) is started when a new electron shell is filled with its first electron. Columns (Groups) consist of elements with the same number of valence electrons in the outermost subshell. Depending on which subshell is the contains the valence electrons (s, p, d or f subshell) elements are placed in different parts of the periodic table, called blocks (the element which has valence electrons in d-subshell is placed in d-block)....
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