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1. Which of the following statements about the group 5. Of the following species, which is diamagnetic in its of elements consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs is correct? ground state? (3pts) (3pts) (a) NO* (b) O2 (a) The metals are all powerful oxidizing agents. (c) O2 (d) O2" (b) They are known as the alkaline earth metals since (e) NO their hydroxides are strongly basic. (c) They are usually stored under water since they react readily with air. (d) Each has the largest atomic radius of any element 6. The metallic gold has a unit cell of face-centered in its period. cube structure with one side of 8.16 A. What would the atomic radius of gold be? (3pts) (a) 1.80 A (b) 2.80 A 2. The species in which of the following pairs have same (c) 3.80 Â (d) 4.80 A geometries? (3pts) (e) 5.80 A (a) H2S and NH4* (b) OF2 and CH4 (c) H3O+ and CF4 (d) XeF4 and BrF4 (e) H2O and SF4 7. What is the osmotic pressure of a 0.020 M of NaCl aqueous solution at 25 °C when the osmotic pressure of a 0.020 M sucrose aqueous solution at 25 °C is 0.30 3. Liquid ammonia does not exhibit which of the atm? (3pts) following types of intermolecular interactions? (3pts) (a) 0.62 atm (b) 0.2 atm I. Dipole-dipole interaction (c) 0.25 atm (d) 0.60 atm II. Hydrogen bonding (e) 1.0 atm III. London(dispersion) force IV. lonic boning (a) I only (b) II only (c) III only (d) IV only 8. At the same molality, which of the following solutions (e) I, II, and III has the lowest freezing point? (3pts) (a) NaCl (b) NaNO2 (c) CH3COOK (d) AI(NO3)3 4. Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing (e) MgBr2 agent? (3pts) (a) OH- (b) O22- (c) O2 (d) O2 (e) O2* 10. Arrange the atoms or ions in decreasing order of size for each of the following groups. (6pts) (a) Ba²*, CS*, l', Te2- (b) P.P.P.,22 11. The following table shows the hydration energies and melting points for Li*, Na*, and K* ions. lon Hydration Energy (kJ/mol) mp ("C) Li* -510 180 Na* -402 98 K* -314 64 (a) The hydration energy of an ion represents the change in energy that occurs when water molecules attach to a M* ion. Describe the tendency of hydration energies for the three ions (Li*, Na*, and K"). (4pts) (b) Lithium is the best reducing agent in water, but sodium and potassium react much more vigorously. Explain using melting points in the table. (4pts) 12. Predict the molecular structures, bond angles, polarities and expected hybrid orbitals on the central atom for each of the following compounds. (12pts) (a) SeCl4 (b) KrF4 (c) IF3 13. Using the molecular orbital model, please give the electron configurations of F2°, F2 and F2: And predict their bond orders and the relative bond lengths. And how many unpaired electrons do you expect in each species? (10pts) 14. (a) Draw all the possible Lewis structures of cyanate ion (CNO*). (3pts) (b) Choose the most stable one and explain the reason. (3pts) 15. X-ray with a wavelength of 2.63 A was used to analyze a crystal. The angle for first-order diffraction (n=1 in the Bragg's equation) was 15.55°. What is the spacing (in pm) between the crystal planes, and what would be the angle for second-order diffraction (n=2)? (4pts) 16. Please match the following vapor pressure diagrams with the solute-solvent combinations and explain your answer (9pts) d is 6. 5 . - I II (a) Hexane (Cothed and chloroform (CHCI) (b) Acetone and water Acetone: CH, CHy (c) Hexane (Cother) and heptane (C>H16) 140 17. Refer to the following heating-cooling curve for water, 130 determine which of the heat of fusion (AH and the heat of 100 vaporization (AHa) is greater, and explain why? (4pts) 80 Water- 6 40 20 locand Heal added at coestant rate 18. Among the possible cubic unit cells of a crystalline solid, the face-centered cubic unit cell shows the largest packing efficiency, which is the volume occupied by the components in the total volume. (a) Find the percentage of the volume occupied by the components in the face-centered cubic unit cell. The components are assumed to be complete spheres. (3pts) (b) Find the numbers of tetrahedral and octahedral holes per each face-centered cubic unit cell. (3pts) (c) In calcium fluoride (CaF2) crystal, the calcium ions form a face-centered cubic lattice and the fluoride ions occupy the holes. What type of holes do the fluoride ions occupy? In this structure, how many fluoride ions surround one single calcium ion? (3pts) 19. Seawater (1.000 kg) was heated to evaporate water. The mass percent of the remaining salt (34 g) components are as follows; component Na* Mg2* Ca2+ CI mass percent (%) 32 4.0 1.0 57 6.0 (9pts) (a) Find the total molal concentration of the ions dissolved in the seawater. (b) Determine the freezing point of the seawater (freezing-point depression constant of water = 1.86 ° /mol). (c) How many grams of NaCI should be added to allow 1.000 kg of this seawater to freeze at -5.0 °C?

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