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1. Construct a Born-Haber cycle to calculate the lattice energy of MgCl.. (Use dala from Appendix II, Table 8.1, Figure 8.15 and Figure 9-4 of the textbook.) The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics lists the MgCl2 lattice energy as 2540 k.l mal-1. How does your answer compare lo the literature value? (Lide, D. R., Ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 86th edilion. Thylor & Francis, Boca Ralon, 2005.) 2. Explain, in detail, why atomic radii do not increase uniformly with increasing atomic number. Give specific examples in your answer. 3- Hydrogen azide (HN2) is a shock-sensitive liquid, which means it explodes when subjected to a physical shock. The IIN2 molecule contains two N-N bonds with bond lengths 113 pm and 124 pm. The H- N N bond angle is 112°. Draw Iwo Lewis of HN3 that obey the octet rule. What is the formal charge of each atom in your structures? Which structure is most consistent with the experimental data? 4. Consider the following structural data on fluorine nitrate, TONO2. Using this data, construct a Lewis structure and a three dimensional drawing of the molecule. Describe the bonding in lerms of valence bond theory (i.e. orbital hybridizations and orbital overlaps to form O and a bonds). Bond* Bond length (pm) N-O 129 N-O' 139 F-O' 142 "O' refers to the oxygen atom bonded to fluorine. Bond angles: o N o 125° F-O'-N - 105° The NO'F plane is perpendicular lo lhe 0,N0' plane. 5. The anion 142 is linear. The anion I, is bent, with a 95° angle at the central iodine atom. Draw valid Lewis structures for each of these ions. What orbilal hybridizations are consistent will the molecular geometries? 6. A 50.0 g piece of CO2(s) (i.e. "dry ice") is sealed inside a 0.250 L conlainer hold al 20°C. Based on the phase diagram of CO2, (Figure 11.42 in the textbook), what state(s) of matter are present inside the container? 7. The elhanol content of alcoholie beverages is somelimes expressed in terms of "proof." This term comes from a 17th century test for the alcohol content in whiskey. The whiskey was poured onto gunpowder and then set on fire. If the whiskey was too wet, the gunpowder would not ignile afler the whiskey had burned off. However, if the whiskey had not been watered down. the gunpowder would ignite. A positive test required a minimum ethanol content of approximately 50% ethanol (by volume), which was called "100 proof." Whiskey with 40% elhanol is "80 proof," and so on. a. What is the approximate molar concentration of ethanol in 100- proof whiskey? Treat the whiskey as a solution of ethanol dissolved in waler. The densily of pure elhamol is 0.789 P ml. Assume the density of the mixture is the same as that of the solvent. Report your answer to two significant figures. b. If the vapour pressure of waler is 17-5 lorral 20°C, whal is the water vapour pressure inside a bottle of 100 proof whiskey? 8. Whal is the freezing point of a 50% by volume elhanol solulion? Assume water is the solvent. (Use data from Table 12.7 in the textbook.)

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