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1) Which of the following will cause the volume of an ideal gas to triple in value? a) raising the temperature from 25°C to 75°C at constant pressure b) lowering the Kelvin temperature by a factor of 3 at constant pressure c) raising the Kelvin temperature by a factor of 3 while increasing the pressure by a factor of 3 d) lowering the Kelvin temperature by a factor of 3 while increasing the pressure by a factor of 3 e) lowering the pressure by a factor of 3 while the temperature stays constant 2) The process of bond breaking is _________________ and the process of bond formation is ______________. a) exothermic; endothermic b) endothermic; exothermic c) exothermic; constant d) constant; exothermic 3) A balloon is filled with helium gas. For the following question, select the letter of the balloon diagram that corresponds to the given change in conditions (A - smaller, B - same, C - larger). The initial balloon has a volume of 2.0 L at a pressure of 1 atm. If the pressure is increased to 2 atm, which balloon will represent the new volume of the gas? (Assume T, P are constant) a) Balloon A b) Balloon B c) Balloon C d) Both A and C are possible e) Not enough information 4) The process of dissolving NH4NO3 in water is an ENDOTHERMIC process. Which of the following statements is true? a) ΔH is positive and the flask would feel warm b) ΔH is positive and the flask would feel cool c) ΔH is negative and the flask would feel warm d) ΔH is negative and the flask would feel cool 5) Assign the appropriate labels to the phase diagram shown below. a) A = liquid, B = solid, C = gas, D = critical point b) A = gas, B = solid, C = liquid, D = triple point c) A = gas, B = liquid, C = solid, D = critical point d) A = solid, B = gas, C = liquid, D = triple point e) A = liquid, B = gas, C = solid, D = critical point 6) In a container where the pressure and amount of gas particles are constant, the temperature is raised from 50°C to 100°C. What would happen to the volume of the gas? a) It will increase by a factor of 2 b) It will increase, but by less than a factor of 2 c) It will decrease by a factor of 2 d) It will decrease, but by less than a factor of 2. 7) Which of the following substances (with specific heat capacity provided) would show the greatest temperature change upon absorbing 100.0 J of heat? a) 10.0 g Cu, CCu = 0.385 J/g°C b) 10.0 g H2O, = 4.18 J/g°C c) 10.0 g ethanol, Cethanol = 2.42 J/g°C d) 10.0 g Al, CAl = 0.903 J/g°C e) 10.0 g Pb, CPb= 0.128 J/g°C 8) As a gaseous element condenses, the atoms become ____________ and they have ____________ attraction for one another. a) more separated, more b) more separated, less c) closer together, more d) closer together, less 9) Given the thermochemical equation: C3H6O(l) + 4O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 3H2O(g) ∆H = -1790 kJ What is the ΔH for the reaction given below? 2C3H6O(l) + 8O2(g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(g) a) -1790 kJ b) +1790 kJ c) -3580 kJ d) +895 kJ e) +3580 kJ 10) Which of the following statements are true when ΔE = +45 kJ a) The system gains 45 kJ while the surroundings lose 45 kJ b) The system loses 45 kJ while the surroundings gain 45 kJ c) Both system and surroundings lose 45 kJ d) Both system and surroundings gain 45 kJ 11) Which of the following sets of conditions would always result in an increase (positive value) of the internal energy of a system? a) The system loses heat and odes work on the surroundings b) The system gains heat and does work on the surroundings c) The system loses heat and has work done on it by the surroundings d) The system gains heat and has work done on it by the surroundings 12) The normal boiling point of diethyl ether is 34.6°C. If you are in Denver where the atmospheric pressure is 0.88 atm, how will the boiling point of ether change? a) > 34.6°C. b) <34.6 °C. c) 34.6°C. d) There is not information given to solve the problem. 13) Acetone is the simplest ketone that used frequently as a solvent and as a cleaner in the laboratory. Its structure is shown below. What kind of intermolecular forces can acetone achieve? a) Dispersion Forces b) Dipole-Dipole Interactions c) Hydrogen bonding d) Dispersion and dipole-dipole interactions e) all three types 14) Two metals of equal mass with different heat capacities are subjected to the same amount of heat. Which undergoes the largest change in temperature? a) You need to know the initial temperatures of both metals b) Both undergo the same change in temperature c) The metal with the lower heat capacity d) The metal with the highest heat capacity 15) A sample of the substance in this phase diagram is initially at 95°C and 950 mmHg. Which phase transition occurs when the temperature is increased to 180°C at constant pressure? a) solid to liquid b) liquid to gas c) solid to gas d) gas to liquid Short Answer - Show all work to get full credit. Express answers with 3 SFs and units 16) Answer the following questions about iodine using its phase diagram. a) What state is present at 150°C and 1 atm? b) What is the melting point for iodine at 1 atm? c) Draw an arrow on the graph of the line that must be crossed to represent sublimation. 17a) A sample of nitrogen gas (N2) is held in a 245 mL container at a pressure of 976 mmHg and a temperature of 46°C. How many grams of N2 gas are in the container? 17b) Using the answer from part A, what is the density of the gas sample in g/L? 18) A piston contains 2.00 L of gas at a pressure of 1.00 atm. When the pressure is increased, the volume decreases. Explain why the pressure increases with lower volume using kinetic theory. (4 points) 19) Calculate the ΔH of the reaction below using Hess's Law: (8 points) CH4(g) + NH3(g) → HCN(g) + 3H2(g) Using these equations: N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g) ΔH = -91.8 kJ C(s) + 2H2(g) → CH4(g) ΔH = -74.9 kJ H2(g) + 2C(s) + N2(g) → 2HCN(g) ΔH = +270.3 kJ 20) Observe the graph of the boiling points of the group 6A hydrides. Does molar mass alone explain this trend? What is the major factor that explains water’s high boiling point? Use intermolecular forces in your answer. (4 points) 21) Observe the following thermochemical equation for the combustion of octane (C8H8): (6 points) 2C8H18(l) + 25O2 (g) → 16CO2 (g) + 18H2O (l) ; ∆H = -10942 kJ How many kJ of energy are released when 37.8 Liters of octane burns (this is the equivalent of a 10 gallon tank)? The density of octane is 0.703 g/mL. 22) Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is dissolved in water according to the reaction below. When 15.7 g of HCl are dissolved in enough water to make 100 mL of solution, the temperature of the calorimeter goes from 21.3°C to 80.2°C. Find ∆H for this process. (8 points) HCl(g) → H+(aq) + Cl- (aq) ΔH = ??? Assume that the specific heat of the solution is 4.18 J/g • °C and density is 1.00 g/mL and that the heat absorbed by the calorimeter is negligible 23) Ammonium dichromate ((NH4)2Cr2O7) decomposes according to the chemical reaction seen below. (NH4)2Cr2O7(s) → Cr2O3(s) + N2(g) + 4H2O(g) ΔH = -312 kJ Find the standard enthalpy of formation ∆�# ° of ammonium dichromate given the following standard enthalpies. Standard enthalpies Cr2O3 = -1139.7 kJ H2O = -241.8 kJ N2 = 0 kJ 24) How much ice (in grams) would need to melt to lower the temperature of 512 mL of water from 25°C to 5°C? (Density of water = 1.0 g/mL, Cs = 4.18 , ΔHvap = 6.02 kJ/mol)

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