1. At a water treatment plant in Ontario in 2014, aqueous ammonium sulfate was accidentally mixed with sodium hypochlorite. That caused formation of NCl3 in the sodium hypochlorite tank; NCl3 exploded. This problem asks about some of the chemistry involved.
a) Write the chemical formulas of the following polyatomic ions: ammonium
b) Write chemical formulas for the following compounds:
ammonium sulfate hypochlorous acid sodium hypochlorite
c) Here is a reaction of ammonia and hypochlorous acid: NH3 + HOCl → NH2Cl + H2O. Write the analogous reaction of monochloramine, NH2Cl, with HOCl to create dihchloramine, NHCl2.
d) Write the final reaction of dichloramine with HOCl to create trichloramine, NCl3.
e) Name, from your own experience or from a web search, one household solution that
contains sodium hypochlorite.
2. Biochar is a solid fuel made from plant waste, especially sugar-cane waste.
[Source: Dewi A. Iryani, et al., Waste Biomass Valor, 8, 1941 - 1951, 2017.]
Analysis of a biochar sample showed that it contained 44.2% carbon by mass. Suppose 1000.0 kg of such biochar is burned. Assume plenty of oxygen is supplied during burning.
a) How many moles of carbon are in the 1000.0 kg of biochar?
b) What mass of carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere?
c) If the biochar was not burned but was left to decompose naturally, would the mass of
carbon dioxide released be the same, or more, or less?
3. "Carbon-offset shipping" is offered by some online retailers. Etsy is an example. Information:
A formula for calculating carbon emissions from shipping a package by air is the following:
kg CO2 emitted = 6.0×10-4 × D × W
where D is distance in miles, W is weight in pounds, and it is assumed that the package travels by air freight. Carbon offsets can be purchased for $10/tonne. 1 tonne = 103 kg.
Sources: The formula is from carbonfund.org, which got it from the EPA web site https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2018-03/documents/emission- factors_mar_2018_0.pdf
The price per tonne is from https://carbonfund.org/
a) Choose a package weight and choose a distance. b) Calculate the kilograms CO2 emitted by shipping.
c) Calculate the price of purchasing the carbon offset.
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