QuestionQuestion

1. Each element of the period table is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom, which assigns the atomic number of the element. The mass number (amu = atomic mass units) of an atom is the sum of the protons (each proton = 1 amu) and the number of neutrons (each neutron = 1 amu).
Based on the above information, Th-232 (Thorium with mass = 232 amu, atomic number 90) would have _____ ___ protons and ____ __neutrons.

2. Three main types of decay processes involve:
1. Alpha decay: nucleus spontaneously emits an α (alpha) particle, same as Helium nuclei, which is 2 p+ and 2 n. Result: atomic number decreases by 2 (lost 2 p+); atomic mass decreases by 4 (lost 2 p+ and 2n = 4 amu)
2. Beta decay: neutron in nucleus spontaneously emits a β (beta) particle , which is essentially an electron trapped in a neutron. The neutron, therefore, turns itself into a proton. Result: atomic number increases by 1 (gained 1 p+); atomic mass stays same.
3. Beta or electron capture: : proton in nucleus captures a β (beta) particle which is essentially an electron that can become part of a neutron. The proton, therefore, turns itself into a neutron. Result: atomic number decreases by 1 (lost 1 p+); atomic mass stays same.
For example: Po-206 (atomic number = 84) with α decay makes Pb-202 (atomic number = 82)
Please write your responses as "element symbol" followed by "atomic mass" as written in this problem itself, e.g. Boron (atomic number 5 and atomic mass 11) is written as B-11.
o Be-9 + α =         
o C-12 + 2 α =      
o Bi-206 = _____ ____ + β (Note: β on the product side means decay from Bi)
o Tl-202 + β = ____ ____ (Note:β on the reactant side means nucleus captured a beta particle)

3. Using two types of decay - Alpha (He-nuclei) and Beta particle from the existing nuclei of Pb-206 can you make Au (Gold)? How many Alpha and Beta decay will it take? List out the products at each step of decay. Most common gold we find on Earth is Au-197. Is the gold you just made lighter or heavier than the common gold?
For example, U-235, which has 92 protons and 143 neutrons, will make Th-231 with one alpha decay.

4. Following are some Parent - Daughter isotope pairs with their half life:
o U-238 going to Pb-206 (T1/2 = 4.5 x 109 years)
o U-235 going to Pb-207 (T1/2 = 0.7 x 109 years)
o C-14 going to N-14 (T1/2 = 5700 years)
Q-1: If the C-14 : N-14 ratio in a shell in a sandstone was found to be 1:3, how old is the shell?
Answer-1: _______ ______ years
Q-2: If the U-235:Pb-207 ratio in a rock from Massachussets was determined to be 1 : 15, how old is the rock?
Answer-2: ______ ____years
Q-3: (a) If the U-238:Pb-206 ratio in a crystal of zircon found in a sandstone was determined to be 1 : 7, what radiometric age will this give for the zircon?
Answer-3: ______ _____years.
(b) Does the determined age realistic? If no why not? If yes, how? (Explain briefly).
Answer-4: ____________ ____________.

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1. Each element of the period table is defined by the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom, which assigns the atomic number of the element. The mass number (amu = atomic mass units) of an atom is the sum of the protons (each proton = 1 amu) and the number of neutrons (each neutron = 1 amu).
Based on the above information, Th-232 (Thorium with mass = 232 amu, atomic number 90) would have 90 protons and 142 neutrons.
2.o Be-9 + α = N-11...

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