Characterization of Materials
1. Tantalum and niobium form an ideal solid solution. Further, they occur together in nature and are quite difficult to separate, except for few-gram samples suitable for research. Even then, their high melting temperatures are an obstacle to making alloys as reference materials. We would like to explore another approach: obtain XPS data on the pure elements and combine them in the atom ratio that would be present in the alloy. We thought about the same approach to the Nb-Sn system and concluded that success is unlikely. Is the situation the same here? Justify your response.
2. I really do like chocolate such as Leonidas. To my great dismay, a white haze has formed on top of the lovely dark brown. Whatever is it? I read about harmless chocolate bloom. I would like to confirm by some kind of analytical technique that it is indeed that. I have XPS. Will it work ? Any problems?
3. Using new x-ray optic technology, we believe that we will be able to focus the x-ray beam spot down to any value we wish. Once x-ray spot size is no longer the limiting factor for lateral resolution, what will be? Make an analysis and give details.

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