Write a Formal report for Capillary Zone Electropboresis.

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The purpose of this experiment was this experiment was to analyze the effect of pH on the electroosmotic flow and separate the derivatized amino acids from a real sample by capillary electrophoresis [1-3].
This technique is becoming very important analytical tool for the separation of complex samples containing substances with similar chemical and physical properties. For example, it can be used for separation of amino acids, inorganic cations and anions, catecholamines, drugs and vitamins. The technique has a variety of applications in biochemistry and molecular biology [4-5].
The molecules are separated based on their charge to volume ration. This means that two main parameters for the analysis are charge of molecule and its size. Because species are charged they move in the electric field. The time needed to reach the electrode is proportional to their charge and reversely proportional to their volume. The larger the ration the faster is the movement of species. One of the main advantages of this technique is the fact that also neutral species can be analyzed by this technique. This can be done by derivatization when differently charged specie is formed. Or by the use of electroosmotic flow. This phenomenon occurs when the silica is deprotonated and counter ions attach to surface [6]. These ions are surrounded by the ions of the opposite sign. As they move they force the particles with opposite sign to move towards the electrode. On their way neutral species are collected therefore they arrive to the electrode. As the result the fastest cation arrive first, followed by slow cations, neutral molecules, slow anions and fast anions.
The instrumentation for this technique is fairly simple. The detectors are the same as for HPLC. The detectors can be electrochemical (conductivity, potentiometry and amperometry) and spectroscopic (Raman, mass spectrometry, fluorescence and absorbance).
The advantages of this technique are numerous. The first one is the possibility to analyze both charged and neutral species. The detection limits are similar to those...
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