The first compound is the desired compound and the second compound is the undesired
I will be working with a microscale - 0-4: microscale (100 mg solute mixture in 2 mL organic
You can assume that the organic solvent is whatever immiscible solvent you choose. The
choice is not critical, but choosing a solvent based on density could simplify your extraction
Your task is to provide a procedure for purifying a desired organic compound by
removing an undesired impurity, using the technique of extraction.
The scenario starts with a solution of the desired compound plus undesired impurity in
the immiscible organic solvent of your choice. The solvent choice is not critical.
However, if you take its density into consideration, your choice of solvent could make
the procedure shorter.
For reagents, you can assume that you have the following at your disposal:
● 5% aqueous HCl
● 5% aqueous NaOH
● saturated sodium bicarbonate
● saturated sodium carbonate
● saturated aqueous sodium chloride
● sodium sulfate
● extra immiscible organic solvent of your choice (e.g. if your initial mixture is
dissolved in diethyl ether, extra diethyl ether will be available)
Any laboratory glassware and equipment needed for the procedure (e.g. separatory
funnel; rotary evaporator) would be available as well.
Provide a written procedure for purifying the desired compound, starting from the
impure organic solution and ending with the pure desired compound. The procedure
should be detailed enough that an undergraduate student that has successfully
completed the "live" CHEM325 lab could follow your procedure successfully and safely.
● They would need to be told what steps to perform, but it will be understood
that they know how to perform the techniques involved. For example, "extract
solution X with solution Y" doesn't require explaining how to grip a separatory
● They would need to be told whether the organic layer is the upper or the
● They also need to know what hazards are involved and what precautions to
take. However, for this exercise, assume that the SDSs for all the compounds
and reagents have already been reviewed with the student--you don't have to
look up SDSs for this exercise.
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction
of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice.
Unethical use is strictly forbidden.
There are 4-aminobenzoic acid as impurity and it’s ethyl ester as desired product in mixture. Impurity are slightly soluble in water while desired substance is even less soluble because it does not have free hydroxyl group. They are both soluble in organic solvents. In order to extract them, organic solvent must be used which is insoluble in water and dissolve these 2 substances. However, both these would remain in organic solvent which is used, for example dichloromethane(DCM). Dichloromethane is organic solvent which is not soluble in water and will form 2 layers where DCM is bottom because it’s higher density than water....