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Answer 1:
Different haloalkenes particularly chlorinated undergo conjugation with glutathione followed by degradation of the S-conjugate lead to cytotoxic or mutagenic metabolites. The reactive cysteine metabolite of this drug is nephrotoxic that damage specifically kidney which is sequential transformed by gamma-glutamyl transferase and dipeptidases to produce the cysteine conjugates, these conjugates further undergo metabolism to a reactive thiol by the renal enzyme cysteine conjugate beta-lyase found in renal cells (Kidney). Hence these drugs cause maximum damage to the kidney by reactive thiol which can form the DNA adduct...

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