Read Current Topics in Smectic Liquid Crystal Research, Jan P. F. Lagerwall and Frank Giesselmann*[a] and answer:

1. What is Nematic Phase (N)
2. What is Smectic A Phase (SmA)
3. What is Smectic C Phase (SmC)
4. What is Smectic C Anticlinic Phase (SmCa)
5. What is chiral Smectic C* Phase (SmC*)
6. Discuss what is ferroelectric, liquid crystal
7. Discuss what is antiferroelectric, liquid crystal
8. Discuss what is antiferroelectric, liquid crystal
9. Discuss what is SSFLC Devices and what its problems
10. Discuss what is De Vries like materials and what its problems

6 pages or more. You can use other academic sources (books and journals article), but show the reference.

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Nematic phase

Liquid crystal is a state of matter with the properties being between those of a liquid and of a solid crystal – it is an anisotropic fluidic phase. Liquid crystals may flow, but the molecules are arranged and oriented in a crystal-like fashion (although a liquid crystal can be turned into other states of matter, e.g. a liquid crystal can be turned into solid state under certain temperature and/or pressure). Type of ordering within a liquid crystal determines the liquid-crystalline phase. Order can be of short range (only between molecules relatively close to each other) or of long range (extending to molecules relatively distant from each other). Positional or translational order (type of ordered lattice arrangement) and orientational order (where the molecules “point to”) can be determined. Liquid-crystalline phases are also called mesophases and can be thermotropic or lyotropic. Thermotropic mesophases (those in which the formation of the liquid-crystalline state temperature dependent; temperature changes induce a phase transition because of the change of the motion of the molecules in a crystal, e.g. a liquid crystal becomes an isotropic (uniform in all directions) liquid at higher temperatures, because the molecules move more freely) are those which occur in a certain temperature range. As mentioned before, at temperatures above the thermotropic crystal range, a liquid...
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