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Problem 1: You just put a new spindle of conductive graphene polylactic acid filament in your 3D printer, only to find that the filament doesn’t print.   Instead, the filament gets jammed into the extruder nozzle and you don’t get to make your plastic duck. You check to see that the extruder temperature is set to the required 210 °C, using a calibrated IR thermometer, of course. You ascertain that it is not the printer, but is the filament. What do you think the problem might be and how do you test this hypothesis and confirm what the problem really is? What physical or chemical properties do you need to measure and how? And no sending it off to the manufacturer or supplier for them to solve the problem, your insane outbursts and continual irrate and obsence twitters and emails have pretty much made you an independent researcher.

Problem 2: Your company builds flexible e-books from conducting polymers (PEDOT), magnetic particles (nano-magnitite), polymeric light emitting diodes (PEDOT-Poly(phenylene-vinylene), Surlyn polymer encapsulant, and powered by a zinc air battery.   You have two production sites: Tucson, Arizona and Barstow, California. You have noticed that e-books that came off the production line in Barstow are performing to specification after 1 year, but those coming from Tucson (7-2017 to 9-2017) are failing at a significant rate with what appears to be conversion of the calcium electrodes to form calcium hydroxide. Microscopic analysis of the encapsulant shows tiny little bubbles in the plastic only over the electrodes – some of them actually burst open. What do you hypothesize the problem to be, how would you investigate it and how can it be solved?

Problem 3: 3D printing utilizes laser or UV induced polymerization of liquid monomers (SLA), laser fusion of polymer particles in a bed (SLS), filament fusion depostion (FFD or FDM), inkjet powder spraying of reactive binder onto powdered filler, inkjet spraying of polymer or monomer solution to directly build material with solvent evaportion, paste printing and variations thereof.   Propose a new additive process for 3D printing.   It does not need to be desk-top, it just needs to be capable of additive construction of an artifact. This should not be a system already published or patented or something you are presently working on – meaning if it doesn’t matter if its not on my list above, if its been already reported it's off limits.   Figures are welcome, but keep it neat and under a page total.   This is a white paper, not a proposal. Provide citations for precedents or background if necessary.

Problem 4: Why did red automobile paint oxidize faster than the blue version? And why doesn’t it oxidize faster now?

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Problem 1:

Answer
The melt viscosity of graphene PLA filament at 210 °C must be high for it to be printed. Polymer composition filled with nanofillers like graphene often results in an increase in viscosity compared to conventional filled polymer composites.
Increase in extrusion temperature might help improve the processability...

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