QuestionQuestion

1.Open VMware Workstation/Virtual Box and launch the Kali VM.
We'll start by learning to move around Linux.
2. Launch a shell. (It's the black box icon to the right of Applications, Places, System.)
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3. Type: whoami (This is the account you're logged in with.)
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4. Type: pwd (pwd stands for "present working directory")
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5. Type: ls –alF
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b. What does this command do?
c. What does the ‘switch’ –alF achieve?
6. Type: cd /
a. Where does this command put you in the file system ‘tree’?
7. Hit the up arrow on your keyboard and then hit it again.
Observe that it shows you your previous commands.
This is a big time saver.
8. Type: ls /usr/share
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Notice all of the tools.
These are your penetration testing tools.
9. Type: cd .. (This will take back to your parent directory.)
10. Type: pwd
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Where are you now?
11. Type: clear
a. What does this command do?
12. Type: history
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b.What does history show you?
13. Type: {press the spacebar} date
14. Hit the up arrow twice and hit enter.
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b. What didn't the history command show you?
c. Why is this important?
15. Type: clear
All software, drivers, drives, etc, are considered files in Linux.
There are many useful commands to perform searches and queries on files in a Linux operating system.   
16. Type: locate gunzip
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17. Type: find /usr/share | more (Hit ctrl+c to stop the output.)
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18. Type: whereis msfconsole
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19. Type: whatis motd
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Linux has many text editors available for use:
20. Type: cat /usr/share/doc/funkload/examples/demo/cmf/passwords.txt
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b. What did "cat" do?
c. Are able to edit the file?
21. Type: nano /usr/share/doc/funkload/examples/demo/cmf/passwords.txt
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Nano is considered to be easier to use for users new to Linux text editors.
When you type you immediately begin editing the file.
Press ctrl+x to exit.
Press "n" to not save any changes.
Sometimes you need to learn more about commands you are not familiar with.   
22. Type: man top
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b. What does the man page description indicate the "top" program does?
c. Type: q
23. Type: info man
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To exit type: q
(Sometime people find it easier to read info pages as opposed to man pages.)
24. Type: top -help
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b. What is printed to the screen?
Let's look at a few Linux networking related commands that are useful to know:
25. Type: ifconfig
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b. What is the IP address?
26. Type: route
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b. What is the gateway?
27. Type: cat /etc/hostname
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b. What is the hostname?
If your hostname is not your name
Type nano /etc/hosts
Delete ‘Kali’
Replace it with your own name
Save and exit
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28. Type: cat /etc/resolv.conf
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b. What is the address of the nameserver (aka DNS server):
29.Find the "sudoers" file.
Read its contents.
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b. What is the exact location of the sudoers file?
c. What commands may members of the sudo groups execute?
30. Edit the hostname of your machine, type :nano /etc/hostname
delete ‘kali’
add your name in its place
press ctrl x
yes to save changes
enter to quit
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