•What is a hash value, and why do you think it is important?
•Explain how a hash value can be made secure to provide message authentication.
•Provide an example as it applies to your current job or life.
•What are the benefits of implementing hash values?

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A hash value is the result of applying a hashing algorithm on a string /file /storage content without any key (compared with symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic algorithms that make use of key(s)). Practically it results a digital fingerprint of the original message/content in digested form. Although the message has variable size, the result of applying a hash function (resulting a hash value) has fixed size. It is important because it ensures, for instance, data integrity (this derives directly from the basic properties of the hash function: easy to compute, but hard to invert; a small adjustment of the initial message results in a major change of the hash value; it is difficult to find two messages that have the same computed hash value). This means the message can’t be easily recovered from the hash value; hence it is not easy to be altered, so it means the integrity of data is increased....

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