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Check the attached three problems.

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Problem 34.5-1
The first part is to prove that our problem (subgraph-isomorphism) is in NP class.
For an instance (G1,G2) it can be considered a map from the vertices of G1 to those of G2. This will show which vertices of the graph G2 correspond to nodes of G1. So if f: V1->V2 is the mapping, where G1(V1, E1) and G2(V2, E2), the certificate will verify if f is one-to-one function and whether for any two vertices a, b from V1, the edge (a,b) belongs to G1 if and only if the edge (f(a),f(b)) belongs to G2. Since we have at most n^2 pairs, it means the certificate runs in quadratic polynomial time. In conclusion the isomorphism between G1 and a specified subgraph of G2 can be verified in polynomial time => subgraph isomorphism is in NP....

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