QuestionQuestion

1) In class, we discussed how a USB drive satisfied particular properties regarding a database. Please define both CRUD and ACID, and then comment how a USB drive satisfies or does not satisfy each of these properties.

2) What is a network database? What is a hierarchical database? How are they similar? How are they different?

3) What is the purpose of constraints and data types and how do the two concepts differ?

4) Consider a database that has two tables. The second table has information that relates to the first and needs to be accessible by an attribute in the first table. Describe what key structures need to be present in these two tables to make this arrangement
work. Describe the interaction between the key types in this instance.

5) Consider a common scenario for a small business where a restricting on outgoing calls is made. To enforce this restriction, the company has planned to institute a database and has asked you to think about different ways that they can make this happen.
Here is the information you have:
We will allow our workers to call any number whose central office code is within three of their own central office code. (Note: a central office code is the 621 in the following number: (207) 621-3212). We are really proud of this: our phones are at least capable of passing their own central office code as a variable to a database or to a program if you deem it necessary.
Comment on how each type of constraint solution (field, table, foreign key, front-end) could be used to solve this problem.

6) Which of these properly addresses consistency vs. correctness?
o Consistency refers to the fact that a number in the real world is required to be implemented as a number in a database. Correctness refers to the fact that the actual number in the real world is what is found in the database.
o Consistency refers to whether an entry makes sense based on the database's requirements and if contradictions are not produced by the entries. Correctness refers to whether a record in the database corresponds directly to the real world motivation.
o Consistency refers to how many records are present for each observation in the real world. Correctness refers to the fact that there is precisely one record for an observation in the real world.
o Correctness refers to whether an entry makes sense based on the database's requirements and if contradictions are not produced by the entries. Consistency refers to whether a record in the database corresponds directly to the real world motivation.

7) Which of these is the proper set of terms that represent the acronym CRUD?
o Create, read, update, delete
o Create, read, understand, debate
o Consistency, restorative, updatable, durable
o Check, relate, update, delete

8) Which of these is not properly defined with respect to the ACID acronym?
o Atomicity: All required parts of a transaction happen, or none at all
o Consistency: The database remains consistent before and after the transaction
o Isolation: A field name can only occur once in a database
o Durable: Once a transaction is committed, it is there until it is undone or overwritten by a user action.

9) Consider the following scenarios. Which database type is recommendable for each?

A transportation database such as Google Maps which needs to be queried based on connectivity
A database that needs to interface with an object-oriented programming language, but also needs to support complex query operations
A sales database that needs to understand seasons, merchandise groups, and sales representatives and their interactions as it is feared that the three things may cause very different concerns.
A database where you want users to be able to explore, chart, and modify data easily
A database about ancestry, where there is a defined vertical component to queries
A situation where data can be manufactured logically from a set of rules

A. Dimensional
B. Network
C. Relational
D. Deductive
E. Temporal
F. Spatial
G. Flat File
H. Spreadsheet
I. Hierarchical
J. Object-relational

10) Which of these makes sense for a field level check?

o A value that needs to be between two other values in the record
o A value cannot be left blank
o A value that must be looked up in another table
o A value that can be calculated from other attributes in the record

11) Consider a check that needs to make sure that the attribute Full Name is a concatenation (combination) of First Name, Middle Name, and Last Name from the row of data being entered. What type of check is this if handled by the database?
o Front-end
o Field level
o Table level
o Foreign key

12) Consider a list restriction that needs to be frequently updated. I have advised you to do this as a foreign key constraint. Why is that the case?
o A new option is easy to create in this format
o An outdated option is easy to remove in this format
o If an option is changed, rules can be constructed to handle already linked items
o All of the above

13) Please pair the operation name with its definition

Thinning the number of records in a relation
Hiding columns that are unnecessary
Finding the common records between two tables/queries
Finding the combination of records when two tables/queries are combined vertically
Finding the items in one table/query that are not in a second table/query
Combining two tables/queries

A. Intersect
B. Join
C. Projection
D. Cartesian Product
E. Selection
F. Divide
G. Union
H. Difference

horizontally, making a copy of each row in one table/query for each row in another table/query
Combining tables/queries horizontally when only those records where a specified attribute is in common are kept
An operation used predominantly to undo the process of consolidating focused tables relying on foreign keys. It is an inversion of another process.

14) Connect the following people from the process of database design with their definition.

A user originally against your project that you include in the development process to bring them onto your side
Someone who won't be around for long who may be helpful or may not care all that much
Answers your questions about the project
Anyone who has an interest in the project
Makes things run generally smoothly. Not glamorous but very useful
Provides a reality check and prevents group think
Ranges from annoying naysayer to malicious saboteur
The highest ranking person driving the project, willing to fight super villains
Thoroughly understands the customer's needs and has the authority to make decisions that stick

A. Generic bad guy
B. Short-timer
C. Devil's advocate
D. Customer champion
E. Sidekick/gopher
F. Executive champion
G. Stakeholder
H. Convert
I. Customer representative

15) Which of these is an example of a one-to-one relationship
o A cat and its owners
o A meal with its ingredients
o A student and his or her grade on an exam
o A word and its letters

16) Which of these is an example of a 1:N relationship?
o A person and their spouses
o A library and its books
o A person and their past due bills
o A computer and its connected peripheral devices

17) Which of these is an example of a 0:1 relationship?
o A picture with its frame
o An object for sale at a store and its price
o An assignment submission and its mandatory comments by the instructor
o A research professor and the courses that he or she teaches

18) Which of these is an example of a 0:N relationship?
o A word and its letters
o A book and its authors
o A person and his or her kidneys
o A clock and its hands

19) Which of these is not required or a side effect of a primary key without other attributes indexed?
o It has a single attribute
o It cannot be NULL
o It is the most efficient way for the system to be searched
o It cannot be repeated


20) Which type of key does not need to be unique?
o Compound
o Secondary
o Alternate
o Foreign (within the satellite table)

21) What is an association object?
o An object that links into another database
o An attribute that foreign keys to another table
o An object that is associated to other objects (such as a teacher and students)
o An object that represents a fundamental relationship between two other objects that might have additional attributes (such as a marriage license)

22) Which of these represents an environment where inheritance would be a relevant concept?
o Creating a supertype of cars, trucks, and motorcycles called VEHICLES, where the class VEHICLES gets all of its information from these smaller classes
o Creating subtypes of people based on their role at the
university, implementing common properties in the class PEOPLE
o A foreign key used to join information to another table, such as an EMPLOYEE table to a COMPANY table that provides company information to the employee

23) Pair parts of speech with the appropriate data definition conventions.

Class Attribute Relationship

A. Noun
B. Adjective
C. Verb
D. Preposition
E. Adverb
F. Conjunction

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These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

1. In class, we discussed how a USB drive satisfied particular properties regarding a
database. Please define both CRUD and ACID, and then comment how a USB drive
satisfies or does not satisfy each of these properties.
a. ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability)
i. Atomicity means transactions are atomic. The operations in a transaction either all happen or none of them happen
ii. Consistency means the transaction ensures that the database is in a consistent state before and after the transaction
iii. Isolation means the transaction isolates the details of the transaction from everyone except the person making the transaction.
iv. Durability means that once a transaction is committed, it will not disappear later
b. CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete)
i. Create refers to generating new observations for a data set
ii. Read/retrieve refers to viewing stored data
iii. Update refers to changing stored data
iv. Delete refers to destroying stored data
c. How a USB drive satisfies or does not satisfy each of these properties.
i. USB drive is good with CRUD, it works faster than rotating disk does
ii. Write-life of USB driver is short, we could lose pages easily , it doesn’t work well with ACID

2. What is a network database? What is a hierarchical database? How are they similar? How are they different?
a. A network database is a type of database model wherein multiple member records or files can be linked to multiple owner files and vice versa. The model can be viewed as an upside-down tree where each member information is the branch linked to the owner, which is the bottom of the tree.
b. A hierarchical database is a design that uses a one-to-many relationship for data elements. Hierarchical database models use a tree structure that links a number of disparate elements to one "owner," or "parent," primary record.
c. Similarities
i. Both use tree data structure
d. Differences
i. Network database permitted the modeling of many-to-many relationships
ii. Hierarchical model uses one-to-many relationship for data elements

3. What is the purpose of constraints and data types and how do the two concepts differ?
a. Constraints are used to specify rules for data in a table
b. A data type is an attribute that specifies the type of data that the object can hold
c. How do the two concepts differ
i. Data type is the attribute of the object while constraint is the relationship among objects
ii. Constraints have low impact on reading but data types do
iii. Constrains have no impact on storage but data type does
iv. Constraints have an clear impact on writing...

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