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This module will describe techniques for ensuring database consistency during failures. This module will also describe common applications of distributed database theory learned in the previous modules of this course.

• Demonstrate the application of the ARIES recovery algorithm to example transaction sets.
• Explain the two-phase and three-phase commit protocols for achieving distributed reliability.
• Compare the costs and benefits between the two-phase and three-phase protocols.
• Demonstrate the application of distributed database theory to the components of commercial data warehouse products.
• Describe the critical factors when constructing data warehouse architectures.

Chapter 12 -- Principles of Distributed Database Systems, Ozsu and Valduriez, 2011.
C. Mohan, ARIES: A Transaction Recovery Method Supporting Fine-Granularity Locking and Partial Rollbacks Using Write-Ahead Logging, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 17, No. 1, March 1992, pp. 94–162; Immon, W., Building the Data Warehouse, 4th Edition. Wiley Publishing, 2005.

1. Discuss how the ARIES algorithm must operate under the circumstances that the system crashes during recovery.

2. Assume that transactions containing the following operations are executed on a database:

Transaction Log

LSN, Transaction, Operation
10 T1 Update P20
20 T3 Update P30
30 T2 Update P40
40 T1 Update P30
50 T2 Commit
60 T3 Update P40
CRASH!

a) Using the ARIES recovery algorithm, create the Transaction Log, Dirty Page Table, and Transaction Table.

Dirty Page Table
Page, RecLSN

Transaction Log
LSN, prevLSN, transaction, type, page

Transaction Table
transaction, lastLSN


b) Assume the Analysis phase uses the rebuilt dirty page table. Which entry of the Transaction Log does the Redo phase start with?

c) Which transactions are undone in the Undo phase?

d) In what order are the transaction operations are undone during the Undo phase?

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• Explain the two-phase and three-phase commit protocols for achieving distributed reliability.

2 phrase protocol

Prepare phrase
When local system completes the transaction, it sends “DONE” message to the control system. If the control system gets “DONE” messages from all local systems, it will send “Prepare” message to all local systems
If the local system wants to commit, it sends “Ready” message, otherwise it send “Not Ready” message

Commit phrase
When control site gets “Ready” message from all local systems. It sends back “Global Commit” message. Local systems apply the transaction and sends “Commit ACK” to control site. When the control site get “Commit ACK” from all local system, the transaction is completed
When control site gets “Not Ready” message from the first local system, it sends “Global Abort” to all local systems. Local systems abort the transaction and sends “Abort ACK” to control site. When the control site get “Abort ACK” from all local system, the transaction is aborted...

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