1). Compare and contrast between:
• XML/Schema and RDF/Schema
• Structured and unstructured data
• Relational Database and XML based database
• Relational Database and NoSQL database
• Vertical scalability and horizontal scalability

2). XML is meta markup language, explain.

3). Why ACID is not applicable in distributed systems?

4). Compare between
a. Physical and conceptual data modeling
b. Sparse and dense index
c. Stored and Derived Attributes.
d. Entity and Entity Sets
e. Strong and Weak Entity Types
f. ER diagrams and class diagram
g. Participation constraints (total, partial)
h. Single and multiple inheritance
i. ER, EER, and Ontology

5). Three binary relationships are not equivalent to a single Ternary relationship type. Why?

6). Suggest suitable cardinality (1-1, 1-m, m-n) for the following entities:

Entity 1 Cardinality Ratio Entity 2
2. STUDENT ______________ TEACHER
3. CLASSROOM ______________ WALL
5. COURSE ______________ TEXTBOOK
6. ITEM (that can be found in an order)______________ ORDER
7. STUDENT ______________ CLASS
8. CLASS ______________ INSTRUCTOR
9. INSTRUCTOR ______________ OFFICE

7). What is the difference between a specialization hierarchy and a specialization lattice?

8). Map the UNIVERSITY database schema shown in Figure 3.20 (from the textbook) into a relational database schema.

9). Secondary indices have to be dense. Why?

10). What is the difference between primary and secondary storage?

11). Why are disks, not tapes, used to store online database file?

12). Consider the file of with r = 600,000 fixed-length records of size R = 100 bytes stored on a disk with block size B = 2,096 bytes.
Complete the following:
The file has b = …………………….. blocks.
Suppose we want to search for a record with a specific value for the secondary key (a nonordering key field) of the file that is V = 9 bytes long.
Without the secondary index, to do a linear search on the file would require …………………….. block accesses on the average.

Suppose that we construct a secondary index on that nonordering key field of the file. A
block pointer is P = 6 bytes long, so each index entry is Ri = ………. bytes, and the blocking factor for the index is …………………… index entries per block.
In a dense secondary index such as this, the total number of index entries ri is equal to ………..
The number of blocks needed for the index is hence ……………….. blocks.

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Question 1
XML schema contains the definitions required by XML files (e.g. DTD), while RDF schema provides relationships between resources that can be related somehow. The main difference is that XML schema is not a semantic extension of XML, while RDF schema extends the RDF model.
XML database emphasizes the role of hierarchy and sequencing, while relational databases are built around the relational model of data.
Compared to a relational database model, a NoSQL database can work with unstructured data and does not need any prebuilt schema.
Structured data is already in a format which allows usual database operations on it, while unstructured data is usually the raw data collected from the data sources. The latter must be prepared (preprocessed) in order to can be made searchable by the database system.
Vertical scalability occurs when more hardware resources are added for gaining higher computational power, while horizontal scalability occurs when more hosts/machines are added to gain higher processing capabilities (e.g. parallel processing).

Question 2
XML is a meta-mark-up language because allows the definition of other markup languages. For instance, the fact that XML tags are user-defined represents an example of the features offered by it. Practically, XML specifies the set of needed rules that contribute on the creation of other markup languages....
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