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1.Cryptography is an effective control measure in protecting networks. What are the two primary types of cryptography and how are they used to secure networks.


2.Firewalls can be an effective technical controls for boundary defense. Discuss how they are employed and their advantages and disadvantages.

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The cryptography and cryptographic algorithms were developed from the need of ensuring a more secured communication between involved parties (i.e. against different attacks that have as main purpose gaining unauthorized access to information and other resources). Cryptography currently represents a significant challenge for security practitioners within any networking environment, regardless whether the environment consists of a simple LAN (Local Area Network), VPN (Virtual Private Network), remote connections, complex communications with webservers or wireless networks, and so forth.
Main two types of cryptography are symmetric (traditional or secret-key based) and asymmetric (also known as public key-based). Both are integrated either in a discretionary mode or hybrid way (combined) within all security tools. Despite the fact that they do not represent true cryptosystems, these tools have embedded cryptographic protocols that are classified in a similar way (i.e. symmetric, asymmetric or hybrid). As a general consideration, the strength of each encryption tool depends more on the key size and good management practice rather than the algorithm used.
The name of “symmetric cryptography” originates in the fact that it uses the same key for encryption and decryption operations. The ciphertext represents in most situations a chained combination between blocks of the plaintext and secret key. Although it is fast, the security of the transmitted data depends on the assumption that eavesdroppers and cryptanalysts with no knowledge of the key cannot read the message. As main drawback, it is difficult to use in practice for large networks or any other environment which assumes large many-to-one topologies; in addition to this issue, it requires large space for creating, sharing and storing all secret keys....
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