Choose a topic of any of the Analogue or Digital Modulation schemes (AM, FM, PM, ASK, FSK, PSK, QPSK, QAM). References should be pointed out as APA format.
Write a report (NOT more than 5 pages double space excluding the Top Sheet) on the topic chosen, clearly indicating on the Top Sheet of the report: Quadrature Amplitude Modulation.

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The starting point for this paper is represented by the observation made on page 142 of the textbook, namely that QAM is the fourth but the best and the widest used mechanism for digital-to-analog signal conversion. Compared to the other three methods (ASK, PSK, FSK), where each modifies only one parameter of a sine wave, QAM changes at the same time two parameters – amplitude and phase (Forouzan, 2007). This task is achieved using two carriers instead of one: the first is considered being in-phase while the latter is quadrature signal. A common misconception among many users, even from those considered more advanced, is that QAM represents exclusively a digital modulation scheme; the truth is that QAM can be considered at the same time both analog and digital since it is able of transporting either two digital bit streams or two analog signals....

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