For this part, you will need to do a little bit of research, and perhaps “teach yourself” some concepts about internet routing.
The data document at contains a summary that compares common internet routing protocols. Examine the document, and use other sources as necessary (cite them!) to explain:
(a) In general, what is a routing protocol? What does it do? How do they work, in general?
(b) The first row categorizes some routing protocols an interior and some as exterior. Explain the difference between an interior routing protocol and an exterior routing protocol.
(c) The second row indicates that some routing protocols use distance-vector and some use link-state. Explain the difference between the two.
(d) Looking at the “Algorithm” and “Convergence” rows, it appears that all the routing protocols that use the Bellman-Ford algorithm are “slow”, whereas those that use Dijkstra’s Algorithm are “fast”. Why is Bellman-Ford “slow” and Dijkstra’s “fast”
(e) Given the above, should we bother using the “slow” routing protocols? That is, why don’t we just always use one of the routing algorithms that is “fast”?
For this part, consider “what is the cloud” in today’s current technologies, and what is could be, or
should be, in the future.
(a) What will be the most important feature(s), improvement(s), or change(s) that are needed to get us from the current state of networked computers that enjoy the current “cloud”, to whatever the future cloud (e.g. Cloud v2.0) will become? (Cite any sources that you use.)
(b) What are the biggest challenges and problems in getting us from where we are, to where we will be (in terms of the state of technology), considering your answer to part (a)
Part C – Connectivity Testing
(a) Use the ping utility to ping 4 different internet addresses. For example, google.com, ebay.com, amazon.com, and . Provide a screen shot of the results for each ping results. Analyze the results, and explain them. Which sites had a faster response, and why? Did any of the results surprise you? Why or why not?
(b) Repeat part (a) by using “ping” from some other machine. For example, try one of the linux machine in the Bitlab, or one of the machines in the Windows computer lab, or a machine in the library. Describe “your machine” that you used in part (a) (e.g., “I used my laptop connected to my home’s wireless router, but for part (b) I used a machine from ”. Compare the results that you get, using ping from these two different machines. If there are differences, try to explain them.
(c) Use the traceroute utility with the same 4 sites are you used in part (a). Again, provide screen captures and explain the results. NOTE: if you get any consistent errors (or not responses or anything like that) in either part (a) or part (b), then replace the site that is giving you problems with some other site that does not. That is, I do not want to see “I tried 4 sites and none of them responded to my ping request and they all failed to provide meaningful traceroute output.”
(d) Do a DNS name lookup for each of the 4 sites. From a Windows command line, type nslookup . E.g., nslookup ebay.com. a. Provide screen captures for the results. b. Explain what the results mean. c. How does the nslookup utility work? That is, what does the program do, when you give it a site name, and how does it get the results that it gets? For example: “There is a tiny little man living inside my computer. When I type nslookup, he looks on an even tinier piece of paper where he has written down all the domains in the world and their real internet addresses, and finds, for example, scott.e.carpenter.com is known throughout the world as address 188.8.131.52”. Now, that is not a good answer. I’ll bet you will have a much better explanation.
(e) Use the whois utility to find out the registration information for ebay.
These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.Part A
a) In general, what is a routing protocol? What does it do? How do they work, in general?
A routing protocol is a method which determines how routers communicate with each other, transferring information by selecting routes between any two nodes on a network. A specific routing algorithm determines the choice of route, while the protocol shares the information among neighbor nodes and eventually throughout the entire routing network. This allows the individual routers to obtain information regarding the overall network topology.
b) The first row categorizes some routing protocols as interior and some as exterior. Explain the difference between an interior routing protocol and an exterior routing protocol.
An interior routing protocol is a protocol used for exchanging routing information between routers within a network. An exterior routing protocol is a protocol used for exchanging routing information between routers between networks.
c) The second row indicates that some routing protocols use distance-vector and some use link-state. Explain the differences between the two.
Distance vector routing protocols calculate the distance plus the vector distance between nodes in order to determine the best path. Link state routing protocols track the state of every single link between each of the nodes in the network and uses this to calculate the best path....
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