Networking and OSI Model

Based on your understanding of the topics covered during the week, answer the following, citing relevant examples wherever possible:

    Describe how error checking is handled in the data link layer. Define a check sum and describe how Transport layer protocols implement them to ensure data integrity. Define and describe sequencing.
    Describe a network address including its addressing scheme, formats, and alternate names. Define and describe the two parts of a MAC address. Compare Ethernet and Token Ring frames in terms of their operation on a network.
    Describe a drawback of analog signals. Describe two benefits of digital signaling that make it worthwhile even though extra signaling pulses are involved. Explain how half-duplex transmissions work.
    Describe what frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is and how it works.
    Describe variables that may influence the final cost of implementing a certain type of media. Explain the makeup of coaxial cable. Explain the makeup of twisted pair wire and describe the advantages of twisted pair wiring. Explain the makeup of fiber-optic cable and describe the benefits of fiber-optic cabling over copper cabling.
    Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using traditional peer-to-peer networks. Describe the advantages client/server networks offer over peer-to-peer networks. Define a network operating system (NOS) and describe the tasks it performs. Describe license tracking in networks.

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Describe how error checking is handled in the data link layer.
Answer: The Data link layer uses FCS (Frame Check Sequence) in the trailer for error checking process. It discards the frame when any error is detected. Afterwards it looks at the addresses to see if it is needed to process the rest of the frame by itself or if it is necessary to forward it on to another host. Data between the header and the trailer is passed to layer 3.

Define a check sum and describe how Transport layer protocols implement them to ensure data integrity.
Answer: First of all, a checksum represents a method of error checking that determines whether the contents of arriving data unit matches the contents of the data unit initially transmitted by the source. The checksum is added to data at the source and it is afterwards verified at destination. If at arriving side the checksum doesn't match the source prediction, then the destination of the Transport layer protocols request the source to retransmit the data. This is how the checksum measures data integrity. Moving further, also the connection-oriented protocols like TCP use a checksum and the approach is the same as described above....
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