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Read the book about Software Engineering Ethics "Ethics for the information age'', 7th edition.
Write a summary for chapters 8 and 9.

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Chapter 8

If human can make mistakes then computer systems can also do so. Despite of regress testing sometimes system fails due to either internal or external factors. The internal factors are basically due to a technical fault, system bug, missing feature or any other technical negligence. On the other hand, external factors are basically due to human interaction e.g. incorrect data entry or providing or using system under inappropriate conditions may lead to a system failure. Many real time examples have been discussed which shows the impact of system failure in various fields. System failure provides useful information and scope of improvement in various phases of system development.

Largely root cause of the failure is from mainly two sources, first one is due to data entry error, which is basically caused when a manual user provides incorrect or misleading information to the system. There have been many examples available for case study which shows the events and impact of system failure on public life. One of the most famous incident was the Florida general election, where many of the votes were refrained from voting due to incorrect entry present in the database. Second one, is data retrieval error, Sometimes due to multiple reasons database or information storage system may have incorrect or inconsistent data present in it. Simple example to understand this issue could be, let’s say an computer application stores the ID to uniquely identify each customer, however if excess amount of data is stored and no provisions are made to handle the e.g. integer overflow error. It could lead to a serious system failure. It was evident from the false arrest cases due to incorrect data retrieval from NCIC database.

Even though if the information entered in the computer is absolutely correct and computer programs manipulate the information, the system can generate the incorrect results or fail completely. Main source of error for such...
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