A series of fats and oils will be displayed for evaluation of aroma, color, and flavor. Both fresh and rancid varieties will be presented for identification. List the fats in Table 10.2 and record observations.
Type of Fat Source Color Odor Flavor

• 1. What causes a fat to become rancid?   
• 2. Which fat would be more stable and why: a fat with a high saturated fatty acid content or a fat with a high unsaturated fatty acid content?   
• 3. What steps must be taken to prevent rancidity in a fat?   
• 4.
o a. What is an antioxidant? Identify those that are used in commercially processed fats and oils.   
o b. What natural antioxidant is found in common vegetable oils?   
• 5. What is a synergist? Describe its action in a fat or oil.   
• 6. Name the types of lard and how they are processed.   
• 7. What is the difference between butter and margarine?   
• 8. What is meant by a refined vegetable oil?   
• 9. What is the difference between virgin olive oil and light olive oil?   
• 10. What are the nutritional consequences in consuming olive oil, soybean oil, and butter? Which one(s) should be incorporated into the daily diet and why?   

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Hui (2006) explains that rancidity in fats is caused by a biochemical reaction that takes place between fats and oxygen. As such, when fats undergo hydrolysis, also referred to as oxidation, it follows that the fatty acid chains split away from the glycerol backbone in glycerides. Apparently, the more saturated fat is, the lower the chances that it will become rancid, and vice versa.
A fat that is highly saturated with fatty acid content is more likely to be stable than a fat with a high unsaturated fatty acid substance (Hui, 2006). The chief reason for this is the structure of the saturated fatty acids. As such, these fats have more hydrogen molecules. Hence, with more hydrogen molecules...

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