Discussion Question
Nutrient Needs during Infancy
An infant was born at 30 weeks gestation. The neonatal physician wants to begin parenteral (intravenous) feedings and needs you to determine the amount of calories, amino acids, and fats the infant needs per day. The mother is concerned her infant may not develop fully as the doctor has told her what may happen.
1. On average, how many calories, amino acids, and fat grams would a pre-term infant need per day if being fed intravenously?
2. How does the above calorie, amino acids, and fat gram needs differ from a pre-term infant to a full-term infant (born at 40 weeks gestation)?
3. Which micronutrients would you provide to the pre-term infant (include the RDAs/AIs)?
4. What types of developmental delays and disabilities is this pre-term infant at risk for?

Discussion Question
Dietary Fat and Adipose Tissue
Thinking about your case study athlete and sport that you have chosen to examine, address the following questions:
• What are the general recommendations regarding dietary fat and cholesterol intake for athletes who play the same/similar type of sport as your case study athlete (as a percentage of their total calories)? What role does dietary fat play in your athlete’s performance? You may need to consider the differences between aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
• Is there a general consensus among the sports science community regarding what the “ideal” percent body fat range is for your athlete’s sport (or similar sport)? Why do you think these recommended levels exist? Are they generally followed among serious or elite athletes? Does it pose any issues?

Discuss fat metabolism and fat as an alternative energy source for athletes.
Part III:
What level of fat is recommended for this athlete and sport? Discuss how fats are utilized when the athlete is actively participating in the sport. Address this portion of the project answering the following questions:
1. The student determines the correct percentage of fat the athlete’s diet needs to contain. This also includes the amount of fat grams and calories (energy) that the fats provide.
2. The student describes the use of fat as an alternative energy source for athletes.Accurately identify the steps involved in the breakdown of a lipid molecule for ATP. Is fat “easier” to use as an energy source? Does it yield more ATP/energy?
3. The student describes the storage of fat in the athlete. How are excess fats stored? Are they readily available for this athlete? Do they need to be? How does the primary or main form of ATP production impact the recommended fat gram intake amount?

Assignment:Baby Steven Case Study
Discuss how nutrient needs change throughout the life cycle.
Explain readiness for food and nutritional requirements from zero to twelve months of age.
Review the following scenario:
John and Susan are both prone to being overweight. They are concerned that their five month old infant son, Steven, will also have weight problems based on what the pediatrician has told them. Currently, Steven breastfeeds six times daily for about 20–25 minutes at each feeding and does not receive any other sources of nourishment.They have read they can begin feeding Steven as early as 4 months of age and wondering if they can start some food since Steven can hold his neck and is able to sit with some support. They also want to know if they need to give him vitamins because their pediatrician continues to ask them if they are giving him anything.
Age                Weight               Length
Birth                   8 lb                20 inches
1 week            8 lb 1 oz            20 inches
1 months          11 lb                21.5 inches
2 months         12 lb 8 oz          23 inches
3 months         14 lb 8 oz          23.5 inches
4 months          16 lb                   25.5
5 months          18 lb                   26.5
Answer the following questions for John and Susan. Your responses should be phrased as though you were counseling the parents. This means explaining your answers in detail. Please refer to question one for an example of an acceptable response.Based on Steven’s growth chart and the growth chart found on the last page below (provided by the CDC), what percentile is Steven at currently? How would you interpret this information such as is Steven underweight, normal weight, or above weight based on the percentile?
•Example response: Based upon the CDC growth charts, your infant son is at the X percentile. Based on this percentile, your son is considered X.
Discuss the signs and clues the infant is ready for solid foods from 0 months to 12 months. For example, from 0-3 months infants should be doing X. From 4-6 months infants should be doing X. From 6-9 months infants should be doing X. From 9-12 months infants should be doing X.
Discuss the progression of solid food from 0 months to 12 months. Include the order of foods you would introduce first, second, third, etc and the consistency of these foods such as pureed, mushy, chunky, etc.
Discuss at least one micronutrient infants store until 6 months of age. Based on this stored nutrient, would you recommend Steven’s parents provide him with vitamins?

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Nutrient Needs during Infancy

A pre-term infant has different nutrition needs than a full term baby. In addition, the pre-term infants have feeding complications since they are not fully developed to coordinate swallowing, breathing and suckling. The nutrition needs of pre-term infants are fully dependent on parenteral nutrition especially among infants with very low birth weights. According to Ambalavanan (2010), a pre-term infant receiving parenteral feeding requires less energy for adequate growth since they lack faecal loss and do not need to absorb the provided materials. Ambalavanan (2010) adds that the goal of parenteral nutrition is to achieve growth rates that follow the intrauterine growth curve for pre-term infants. Total parenteral nutrition aims to provide 378-420kJ/kg per day accompanied by 3-3.5g of proteins per day. Proteins are used to reduce catabolism. The amount of proteins to be delivered depends on the calories to be provided. The adequate intake (AI) of proteins for full term infants is 9.1g per day that is 0-6 month’s infants.
IV dextrose provides the energy needs during total parenteral nutrition. The aqueous dextrose is made up of 14.28kJ/g glucose. Due to its high osmolality the maximum concentration that can be delivered through a vein safely is 12.5% (Ambalavanan, 2010). Therefore, the glucose provided depends on the birth weight, which determines the rate of glucose tolerance. For instance, infants who weigh 1-1.5kg begin with 8mg/kg/min. On the other hand, full-term infants require 60g of carbohydrates per day from 0-6 months.
Ambalavanan (2010) recommends that pre-term infants fed intravenously should receive at-least 3% of their total energy from essential fatty acids. This is realised through providing fat emulsion such as intralipid. During parenteral nutrition, fat emulsion is delivered as a 20% lipid emulsion from soybeans. According to Ambalavanan (2010), most...

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