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Part/ Atmospherie Humidity and Precipitable Water (29marks) Spreadsheet software (e.g. MS excel)is recommended forthe following calculations If you gothis route, youmay wish tohand ina copy (print out) of your spreadsheet If you do this be sure that variables, equations, and answers are carefully labelled so that they can be marked accordingly. 1. Consider a 22°C parcel of air sea level, with RH 54% Calculate the following 5marks) Density kg m³ Vapour pressure mbar Saturation vapour pressure mbar Specific humidity gkg Absolute humidity kgm 2. Repeat (1) but for the air mass sitting over Victoria today: T= 6°C and RH 89%. S marks) Density kgm³ Vapour pressure mbar Saturation vapour pressure mbar Specific humidity gkg Absolute humidity kgm 3. Look online find the air temperature and relative humidity Igaluit, Nunavut today. http://weather e.html What the specific humidity this air? (2 marks) 4. pineapple express system moves air from the subtropical Pacific westem Canada Assume that this air parcelat sea level has temperature of 32°C with relative humidity of 80% a. How much does the air need tobe cooled order toreach saturation? (2 marks) b. Assume that once saturated the air lifted to height (pressure)or 700 mbar Itcools through mois adiabatic processes How much water will condense out of each kg ofair as it is lifted from sea level 700 mbar? (3 marks) c. Assume that weare talking about & discrete air mass (e.g. cloud) with initial volume of 100,000 m sea level. How much moisture isi the initial air mass? kg How much moisturei in the final air mass, 700 mb? kg. Ifall of the vapour that condensed out rained over greater Vancouver (arca 2880km² how much rainfall would Vancouver receive? mm marks) 5. Calculate the precipitable water ir cachlayer and the entire atmosphere spreadsheet is ommended here. What sthe average atmospheric specific humidity? %o 6 marks) P (mbar) q.(%) W (mm) P (mbar) W (mm) 1000-900 0.014 500-400 0.002 900-800 0.010 400-300 0.001 800-700 0.008 300-200 0.0005 700-600 0,005 200-100 0.0002 600-500 0.003 100-000 0.00004 Total Parti B: Surface Energy Balance and Evapotranspiration (33 marks) 6. Evaporation requires an amount of energy O2 -p_L,E for revaporation rate Eand latent heal of evaporation, 2500Jg Assume that summer sun pouring in at 05-800\ Wm² incident ona lake withanalbedo of 0.1. If half available solar energy drives evaporation how much water does thelake lose in one hour? One week? mm (4marks) 7. Melking of snow generally much more efficient than sublimation o snow. Consider the energetics of this for spring day with Os 400 W m² and snow albedo c 0.6 Use snow density If all available solar energy drives meliting, how much snow would melt over 10 hours? cm Ifthe energy goes sublimation instead how much snow would sublimate over 10hours? em marks) 8. In reality not all of the available solar energy will goto evaporation meking, sublimation in questions (6) and(7). Where else might the energy go? (2 marks) 9. Using the Penman Montieth equation answer the following questions (a) Ina Study on transpiration of eucalyptus trees in an a arid pan of Africa researcher found average values aerodynamic and canopy resistance of about 10sm and r,-500s m² (i.e. the leaf stomata/canopy provided most of the resistance transpiration). For average daily (12 -hour) values(C 300 W m². 28°C. RH- 36% and asite at 1000 elevation, calculate the total daily transpiration nmm/day. (6 marks) (b) Lets now consider evaporation over amall lake on Vancouver Island For average daily (12-hour) values 0* 190 m² T- 14°C 65% and wind speed 12ms (measured (m).and a site at 10m elevations calculate the total daily evaporation in mm/day. Use a surface roughness value of 0.003 for your calculation (8 marks) 10. Using the same hydr meteorological setting from 9(b). use the Hamon equation to estimate evaporation over the small lake on Vancouver Island At this site daily average temperature is 10°C mean day length 12-hours marks) 11. (a) List a least one advantage andone disadvantage obtaining evaporation estimates from both the Penman Montieth and the Hamon Method marks) (b) There will be days when the Hamon evaporation methods are higher than the Penman- Month and days when they are lower. Give plausible reasons for why these differences may occur. Consider that the data used in 9b and 10a are from the spring.

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Hydrology Laboratory: Water Vapour and Evapotranspiration
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