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Instructions for Making Graphs of MacKinnon Data Open the workbook bird data.xls Based on the survey data contained nthe worksheets Gallon lug MacKinnon, Coxcomb Basin- Mackinnon, Punto Gorda MocKinnon,and Belmopan MacKinnon enter the CUMULATIVE number of species encountered bysurvey, the yellow-shaded portion < of the worksheet Graph (If prompted by Exceltogive a password order to add these values, enter SNHU). Although there ways you calculation these values, one possibility would bethe following the drop -down arrow at the top of column (labeled survey). you will see a window SonZtoA like that showninthis screenshot toggling buttons, you can see whid particular species were observed neach survey. K The following shows the species survey T specles 02 Blodk headed Here species that recorded The following a fairly simple approach: 02 recordlines those cell with through the file you car easily checl to Survey 02 had been example that would in Survey 01, that had been recorded in seeifa was shown: having Survey Survey Survey 04). Here, Oropendola Northern but Ochre-bellied Flycatcher that this visual inspection "works' isthat for each already been sorted for name and then survey number. Count and enter G Belmopan there were nine survey cumulative seen during 10 had seen previously) You 9 19 #new. columntitled cumulative add 9tothe previoustotal, meaning inthis example, that after twosurveys Belmopan atotal species Next. highlight (survey), change the fillcolor to No Fill, select all. and then repeat the process from above for the next Afte completing the analysis for particular location, you are ready incorporate that information intoagraph Goto the worksheet called Graph and enter the numbers youjust calculated into the appropriate column. You can do this manually through copy paste ofthe value: described above in the MacKinnon worksheets. There are actually twoimportant lessons learn in this process that may not be immedi ately obvious you Data manipulation and analysis almost never the favorite activity of any field biologist those activities importar doing the funstuffof walking around outside, in this example, looking birds Yournayno finda job where your sole responsibilityistodo field work so use this exercise t help remind you self that workine with spreadsheets important Secondly, the relative commitment between analysis and field work susually about 5:1 Thati: for every hour spent doing field work, you probably spend five hours working with data manipulation and analysis. After having entered the MacKinnon data for each fthe four sites your graphs should look something like this (althoughthe values shownhere are not the ones you will discover from your data analysis):

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