These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.On March 11, 2014, northeast Japan was hit by a historic M9.0 earthquake that caused far greater damage than expected, even for the earthquake-prone and prepared nation. Powell, Raloff & Witze (2011) states that Japanese authorities prepared for a M7.5 earthquake in the Sendai/Fukushima prefecture region, but an earthquake of that magnitude is a “hundred time smaller than a 9.0.” The Japanese government could not prepare for a M9.0 in that region because very few recorded earthquakes in recent history near northeast Honshu Island were greater than M8.0; most of the >M8.0 earthquakes occur on the southern coast due to subduction of the Philippine plate into the Eurasian plate (Powell, Raloff & Witze, 2011). The massive earthquake triggered a tsunami that led to approximately 19,000 fatalities, including missing individuals swept into the ocean.
The Tohoku earthquake, which occurred approximately 130 km off the coast of Sendai, was responsible for rupturing “a large portion of the boundary between the Pacific and Okhotsk plates” (Tajima, Mori & Kennett, 2013). However, the only earthquake believed to be nearly as powerful as the 2011 event in the same region was a projected M8.7 in 869 A.D.; only four earthquakes of M8.0 or higher are believed to have occurred between the 17th and 19th centuries (Tajima, Mori & Kennett, 2013). The last major tsunami in the northeast Honshu region occurred in 1896 after a M8.1 event and in 1933 after an M8.0 event, so the Japanese authorities built...
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