1. Deposition What type of organic matter is the source of most pe...

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1. Deposition What type of organic matter is the source of most petroleum? What is the name given to a sedimentary rock that contains enough organic matter to ultimately generate petroleum? 2. Preservation What is the optimum condition(s) to insure the preservation of the organic matter (i.e., prevent it from decomposing) 3. Maturation Conversion of organic matter to petroleum happens with increasing temperature. What happens Up to 60°C? Between 60° to 120°C? Above 120°C 4. Migration Why does petroleum (oil and gas) move from the rocks in which it is generated? What rock property is the most critical to the movement (migration) of petroleum 5. Trap Why do oil and gas typically not move (migrate) all the way to the surface? What rock types are most likely to inhibit (prevent) continued movement? Part II - Exploring for Fossil Fuels First read investigation 18.15 on p. 556-557 in the text, particularly the 7 items pointing to the map and the box labeled "Procedures". Part 1: Stratigraphic Section and Your Interpretation of the Environments of Deposition. Use the description of each rock unit and your knowledge of sedimentary rocks and their depositional environments to interpret in what environment each unit formed. Write the first letter of the appropriate environment on the line (.) next to the rock name in this table. Possible environments of deposition include: B - beach or sandy delta F - freshwater lake L - lagoon that is shallow and muddy R reef W - wetland and swamp that is muddy and plant-rich N - restricted sea (with a limited connection with the ocean) and very evaporated, salty water Upper Shale Dark gray and dark brown shale with nonmarine fish fossils and abundant microscopic organic matter; darker layers emit an oily smell Carbon Beds Red and gray sandstones and shales with coals near the base Tan Mt. Sandstone Tan, well-cemented with no porosity, cross bedded, (bidirectional) and containing broken marine fossils. Top contains thick beds of coal. Muddy Shale Gray shale that contains few fractures and is well lithified. Abundant marine organic matter. Lower Sandstone Very porous, well-sorted sandtone with very little cement. Contain many open fractures, many of which are oil-stained. Cross bedded, (bidirectional) and containing broken marine fossils. Lower Limestone Dark gray limestone with abundant fossils of shelled marine invertebrates. Contains open fractures and pores, some of which are locally oil stained. Salt Gray to white salt (halite) deposit with some thin (cm thick) steaks of organic-rich shale Tests reveal that the entire vertical section of rocks has been heated to 80°C to 100°C What units, if any, is a potential source rock for oil and gas? What units, if any, are potential reservoir rocks for oil and gas? What rocks, if any ,are potential impermeable seals for oil and gas ? What rocks, if any, are potential oil shale? What rocks, if any, are potentially economical coal resources Below is a block diagram of an area with the stratigraphic units that you just interpreted (each rock unit has same symbols and coloring as in the strat section on page 1. Thin black lines have been added to denote the boundaries of the different rock types in the map view. Write the geologic name of the five geologic structures indicated. Possible structures include: anticline, syncline, monocline, normal fault, reverse fault, salt dome, and unconformity. Not all of these structures are present in this area, and some structures may be present in more than one place. Then draw letters on the map any place where you think there is potential for oil and natural gas drilling (OG), coal or coal-bed methane (C), or oil shale (S). Some resources maybe present in more than one location, in which case, label them C1, C2, C3, etc for coal, S1, S2, etc for oil shale, and OG1, OG2, etc for oil and gas. Structure 5 Structure 4 Structure 3 Structure 2 Structure 1 Part III Justifications for Proposed Energy Resource Sites and Extraction Plan For each possible energy resource site you marked on the map, do the following: (1) indicate the type of resource and its number in the left hand column (e.g., OG1, OG2, C1, C2, S1, S2, etc); (2) write a short justification for why you think this site might contain this energy resource; and (3) how you propose to extract this resource (drilling or mine). You may not need all of the lines provided. An example is done for you. Geologic factors that you think indicate that this resource is Energy Resource present and the rock unit in which you predict it to occur in. Your extraction plan OG1 anticline; oil in lower sandstone and/or lower limestone with muddy drill shale forming the overlying seal

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