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1 From the 4 waves shown on Page 2, fill in the following table Wavelength Wave Height A B C D For the 4 waves shown on Page 2, determine the speed of the wave if the depth of the water is shown in the table below. Note: For this exercise any water depth less than ½ of the wavelength is considered a shallow-water wave, anything water depth greater than ½ of the wavelength is a deep-water wave. Make sure you select the proper equations so your results will be expressed on the proper units. Depth of water = 1.5 meters Depth of water = 3 meters A B C D If wave’s A and B were to combine together, pick which of the 4 on Page 3 would be the resulting wave pattern. ____________ 2 3 4 Density is the “compactness” of a material, or stated in a formula it is how much it weighs (mass) divided by how much space it takes up (volume). For pure water the density is 1 gram for every milliliter of water (1 g/ml). From the table below, determine what elements are described in Questions 1-3. Name of element Density (g/ml) Magnesium 1.74 Silicon 2.33 Bismuth 9.80 Zinc 7.14 Sodium 0.97 Boron 2.34 1. Item weighs 25 grams and takes up 3.5 ml of volume _______________ 2. Item weighs 117 grams and takes up 50 ml of volume _______________ 3. This item floats on water ___________________ 4. If all these items were mixed together, which one is expected to sink to the bottom? ________ “Heat” is the next topic. It is a somewhat difficult concept to grasp but it is very important. I encourage you first to read Chapter 5. Then carefully study the next figure. This figure is a graph that plots temperature over thermal energy. To answer questions 9- 12 you need to read, use this graph. No formula is needed! 5 There are two general types of heat; “Sensible” and “Latent.” Sensible Heat describes a process where the temperature changes as heat is added or removed. Latent Heat Thermal Energy is absorbed but the temperature does not change, for example between points D and C shown in the graph. The definition of “Heat Capacity” plays a significant role in sensible heat; it is the ability of a substance to store heat. For pure water, the heat capacity is 1 cal / g °C (1 calorie per every gram of water per every degree change in Celsius), or in words; if I have 1 gram of water and I want to raise it 1°C, I must add 1 Calorie of heat. Determine the following: 5. If I want to raise 2 grams of water 1°C, how much heat should I add? _____________ 6. If I want to raise 1 gram of water 2°C, how much heat should I add? _____________ The higher the ‘heat capacity’ of an object, the more heat it takes to increase its temperature. Determine the following: 7. Wood has 4 times the heat capacity as steel. If I add the same amount of heat to the same amount of steel and wood, I find the temperature of the steel increases to 40°C. What is the temperature of the wood? ___________ 8. Water has 5 times the heat capacity as soil. If I add the same amount of heat to the same amount of water and soil, I find the temperature of the soil increases to 50°C. What is the temperature of the water? _________ The next concept to be considered when dealing with heat, is “Latent Heat”. The word latent refers to the temperature of the system remaining the same even as heat is being added or subtracted from it. This will occur when the system is changing states. Consider a piece of ice. 9. The latent heat of fusion (or the amount of heat required to turn the ice into water) is 80 Calories/gram. How much heat must be added to melt 2 grams of ice at 0°C and what is the final temperature after this heat is added? _______________ _______________ 10. The latent heat of vaporization (or the amount of heat required to turn the water into a vapor) is 540 Calories/gram. How much heat must be added to turn 3 grams of water at 100°C into a vapor and what will be the final temperature after this much heat is added? _____________ _____________ 6 Putting sensible and latent heat together, it is now possible to figure out the temperature of water going through various stages of heat input/withdrawal. (Heat capacity of water is 1 cal / g °C) 11. 60 calories is added to 1 gram of water at an initial temperature of 80°C. What is the water’s final temperature and state (solid, liquid or vapor)? Temperature = __________________ State = ________________________ 12. 120 calories is removed from 1 gram of water at an initial temperature of 40°C. What is the water’s final temperature and state (solid, liquid or vapor)? Temperature = __________________ State = ________________________

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Putting sensible and latent heat together, it is now possible to figure out the temperature of water going through various stages of heat input/withdrawal. (Heat capacity of water is 1 cal / g °C)

11. 60 calories is added to 1 gram of water at an initial temperature of 80°C. What is the water’s final temperature and state (solid, liquid or vapor)?

Temperature = -Final temp of the system- 100 ˚C

State = -Final state would be combined liquid (0.926 gm) and vapour state (0.074 gm)-

12. 120 calories is removed from 1 gram of water at an initial temperature of 40°C. What is the water’s final temperature and state (solid, liquid or vapor)?

Temperature = 0 ˚C

State = Solid...

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