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Atmospheric Heating DIRECTIONS: Please read the exercise below, follow the directions, and submit (1) the 12 questions and answers and (2) the 2 line plots with markers to me via the Assignments tool by the due date. Scientists use many methods in an attempt to understand natural phenomena. Some scientific discoveries represent purely theoretical ideas, while others may occasionally occur by chance. However, scientific knowledge is often gained by following a sequence of steps which involve Step 1: Establishing a hypothesis-a tentative, or untested, explanation. Step 2: Gathering data and conducting experiments to validate the hypothesis. Step 3: Accepting, modifying, or rejecting the hypothesis on the basis of extensive data gathering or experimentation. The following simple inquiry should help you understand the process and some basic principles of atmospheric heating. The Nature of Earth’s Surface The various materials that comprise Earth’s surface play an important role in determining atmospheric heating. Two significant factors are the albedo of the surface and the different abilities of land and water to absorb and reradiate radiation. Albedo is the reflectivity of a substance, usually expressed as the percentage of radiation that is reflected from the surface. Since surfaces with high albedos are not efficient absorbers of radiation, they cannot return much long-wave radiation to the atmosphere for heating. Albedo Experiment To better understand the effect of color on albedo, observe the experiment in the picture below and then conduct the following experiment by completing each of the indicated steps. Step 1-Establishing a Hypothesis Write a brief hypothesis stating the relationship between the heating and cooling of light versus dark colored surfaces. For example, dark colored surfaces heat up (slower, faster, not at all) and cool (slower, faster, not at all) than light colored surfaces. Dark colored surfaces will become (cooler, hotter) than light colored surfaces. 1. Hypothesis: _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Step 2-Gathering Data Previously, in another class, the black and silver containers with lids and thermometers (see experimental layout photo above) were placed about six inches away from a light source. Both containers were equal distance from the light and not touching one another. The starting temperature of both containers was recorded. The light was then turned on and the temperature of both containers was recorded at 30-second intervals for 5 minutes. The light was then turned off and the temperature was recorded at 30-second intervals for another 5 minutes. Collect your data from the file, AlbedoData.xls, located in the Assignments webpage of our course under Experimental Laboratory 2 – Atmospheric Heating. Step 3-Evaluating the Hypothesis Based Upon the Data Prepare a “line with markers displayed at each value” graph of all your data from the AlbedoData.xls file using Microsoft Excel or other graphing program. Set the time variable to the horizontal axis and the temperature to the vertical axis. This can be accomplished by highlighting the “Black” and “Silver” variables (not the “time” variable) when initially selecting the data for graphing in Microsoft Excel. Denote “black container” as series 1 and the “silver container” as series 2 in the legend. Adjust the range of the vertical axis to a minimum value of 15° C. Make sure to add vertical and horizontal axis labels that include the parameter name and units of measurement in parentheses. Please include a meaningful and unique title for each graph that describes the experimental concept. 2. Write a statement that summarizes and explains the results of your albedo experiment. For example, the black container heated (slower, faster, the same as) and cooled (slower than, faster than, the same as) the silver container. At their temperature peak, the black container was (hotter, cooler, the same temperature) than the light colored surface. Dark-colored surfaces like the black container have (low, high, none) albedos and light-colored surfaces like the silver container have (low, high, none) albedos. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Using your graph as a guide, do you think you should accept, reject, or modify your original hypothesis? Give the reason(s) for your choice. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What are some Earth surfaces that have high albedos and some that have low albedos? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Given equal amounts of radiation reaching the surface, the air over a snowcovered surface will be (warmer or colder) than a dark-colored, barren field. Please choose warmer or colder and then explain your choice fully in terms of what you have learned about albedo from the experiment. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. If you lived in an area with long. Cold winters, a (light-, dark-) colored roof would be the best choice for your house. Choose either light or dark and explain the reason for your choice. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Land and Water Heating Experiment Land and water influence the air temperatures above them in different manners because they do not absorb and reradiate energy equally. Investigate the differential heating of land and water by observing the equipment in the picture below and conducting the following experiment by completing each of the indicated steps. Step 1-Establishing a Hypothesis Write a brief hypothesis stating relationship between the heating of land versus water. For example, land heats up (slower, faster, the same as) and gets (colder, hotter, the same temperature) as water. 7. Hypothesis: _________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Step 2-Gathering Data Previously, in another class, one beaker was filled three-quarters with dry sand and a second beaker three-quarters full with water at room temperature. A thermometer was suspended in each beaker so that the bulb was just below the surface of the sand and water. A light was hung from a stand so it was equally as close to the top of the two beakers. The starting temperature was recorded for both the dry sand and water beakers. Then the light was turned on and the temperature was recorded at one-minute intervals for 10 minutes. At the end of the ten-minute period, the light was turned off for several minutes. Water was poured into the dry sand beaker making damp sand. The starting temperature of the damp sand was recorded. Then the light was turned on and the temperature was recorded at one-minute intervals for 10 minutes. Collect your data from the file, LandWaterData.xls, located in the Assignments webpage of our course under Experimental Laboratory 2 – Atmospheric Heating. Step 3-Evaluating the Hypothesis Based Upon the Data Prepare a line with markers graph of all your data from the LandWaterData.xls file using Microsoft Excel or other graphing program. Set the time variable to the horizontal axis and the temperature to the vertical axis. This can be accomplished by highlighting the “Water”, “Dry Sand”, and “Damp Sand” variable (not the “time” variable) when initially selecting the data for graphing in Microsoft Excel. Denote “water” as series 1 and “dry sand” as series 2, and “damp sand” as series 3 in the legend. Adjust the range of the vertical axis to a minimum value of 15° C. Make sure to add vertical and horizontal axis labels that include the parameter name and units of measurement in parentheses. Please include a meaningful and unique title for each graph that describes the experimental concept. 8. Write a statement that summarizes and explains the results of your land and water heating experiment. For example, the dry sand beaker heated (slow, fast, not at all) while the water beaker heated (slow, fast, not at all). The damp sand beaker heated (slower than, faster than, the same as) the dry sand beaker and (slower than, faster than, the same as) the water beaker. The (dry sand, damp sand, water) treatment heated to the greatest temperature. The (dry sand, damp sand, water) treatment heated to the least temperature. These results show that land and water absorb and reradiate heat (the same, differently). _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Using your graph as a guide, do you think you should accept, reject, or modify your original hypothesis? Give the reason(s) for your choice. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 10. How do the abilities to change temperature differ for dry sand and water when they are exposed to equal quantities of radiation. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 11. How do the abilities to change temperature differ for dry sand and damp sand when they are exposed to equal quantities of radiation? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 12. Suggest several reasons for the differential heating of land and water. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ *Exercise Adapted from Applications and Investigations in Earth Science,7th Ed. by Tarbuck, Lutgens, Pinzke and copywrited by Pearson Education, Inc. Time (min) Black (°C) Silver (°C) 0 18 18 0.5 18 18 1 19 18 AlbedoData.xlsx 1.5 30 29 2 31 30 2.5 32 30 3 33 31 3.5 35 31 4 38 32 4.5 40 34 5 40 34 5.5 38 35 6 38 34 6.5 34 32 7 33 31 7.5 32 30 8 31 29 8.5 30 29 9 29 28 9.5 29 28 10 28 27 Time (min) Water (°C) Dry Sand (°C) Damp Sand (°C) 0 20 20 24 1 22 22 26 2 22 26 26 3 23 27 27 4 23 28 28 LandWaterData.xlsx 5 24 29 28 6 24 30 28 7 24 31 29 8 25 31 30 9 25 32 30 10 26 33 30

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Step 2-Gathering Data
Previously, in another class, the black and silver containers with lids and thermometers (see experimental layout photo above) were placed about six inches away from a light source. Both containers were equal distance from the light and not touching one another. The starting temperature of both containers was recorded. The light was then turned on and the temperature of both containers was recorded at 30-second intervals for 5 minutes. The light was then turned off and the temperature was recorded at 30-second intervals for another 5 minutes. Collect your data from the file, AlbedoData.xls, located in the Assignments webpage of our course under Experimental Laboratory 2 – Atmospheric Heating...

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