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Ethanol fuels are becoming increasing popular as alternative sources of energy. In the EU alone, over 5,000 million liters of ethanol have been used as a fuel in 2016. Ethanol fuels can be produced in various ways and many production techniques require a stage of purification (refinery) of the fuel. This can be achieved through techniques such as distillation.
a) Name at least three thermodynamic conditions which must be present for two phases of pure ethanol to be in equilibrium.
b) When considering the liquid-vapour phase equilibrium of a mixture of liquid alcohols, it is useful to define the Lewis/Randall state and the Henry state. Explain what each of these states represent.
c) Explain why the mole fraction of a number of alcohol in a mixture is not necessarily equal to the mole fraction of the gases in the vapour phase above the mixture at equilibrium.

Ammonia is produced industrially through the Haber process. Nitrogen and Hydrogen gases are mixed in a 3:1 ratio in the presence of a catalyst at high temperature and very high pressures in order to produce NH3 (g), which is then collected.
1. A gas flow at a chemical plant producing ammonia contains 23% nitrogen, 69% hydrogen, and a small amount of water impurity (8%). Calculate the dew point of this mixture assuming ideal behaviour.
2. Calculate the maximum vapour phase fraction of water allowable for the mixture of gases not to form condensation at 298K. Assume that the mixture of gases is ideal, and that N2 and H2 are always in a 3:1 ratio.
3. A) use the Antione equation to determine the boiling point of ammonia at 200 atm of pressure, a pressure commonly used in the Haber process.
B) Use Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine the boiling point of ammonia at 200 atm of pressure.

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a) Name at least three thermodynamic conditions which must be present for two phases of pure ethanol to be in equilibrium.
1. The molar Gibbs free energy of the ethanol should equal in each phase/
2. The temperature of the system should be constant.
3. The pressure of the system should be constant...

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