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A long wire is buried underground such that its centerline is 2 m below the surface. The wire is enclosed in a pipe with liquid nitrogen (at 72 K) used to fill the gap between the wire and pipe. The pipe is having a thin wall with the diameter of 0.1 m. The pipe is covered with an insulation layer (k= 0.004 W/m K) of 0.05 m thickness. The surface of the earth is at 300 K. Take the thermal conductivity of the earth, to be 1.2 W/m K. (a) Calculate the total thermal resistance involved in the heat transfer from the ground to the pipe. [7 marks] (b) What is the heat transfer rate per unit pipe length (in W/m)? marks]

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