Question

1. The volumes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice caps are 2.85×10⁶ km³ and 25.7×10⁶ km³, respectively. Estimate the rise in sea level if both ice caps melted completely. And estimate the sea level rise by the thermal expansion of sea water by the end of this century.
- The radius of the Earth is 6400 km
- 70 % of the Earth’s surface is covered by sea.
- Sea water temperature will be increased 2°C by the end of this century.
- Volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of sea water is 0.000214 /K.
- Average depth of sea water is 3000 m.
- Assume the temperature change will occur in the top layer of sea (500 m depth).

2. Describe three heat transfer form and write the governing equations.
3. Estimate the temperatures of the earth with and without atmosphere when the albedo of the earth decrease from 0.3 to 0.25.
4. Describe definition of reserves and resources and their difference.

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4) Resources and Reserves:
Resources are the known concentrations of the materials and the minerals which are available in the earth crust. However for evaluation of the resources all the comprehensive presence of the resources is considered. Reserves are those resources whose economic evaluation is complete and the commercial feasibility of extraction is already established. All the resources are not reserves, only those resources whose commercial viability in excavation is established after evaluation can be considered as reserves. However each and every reserve is a part of the resource on the earth. It is also possible with the betterment of technology and advancement, current resources which are not reserves can become reserves in future....

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