QuestionQuestion

Pick a materials failure issue in any nuclear reactor type (e.g., embrittlement in steel bolts), and discuss the following:
a. Introduce the problem.
b. Discuss the relevant studies done and the current state‐of‐the art in understanding the problem.
c. Discuss, in your analysis of the literature, what is positive in, and also what is missing from, the current understanding.
d. Present a conclusion that includes a summary of the problem, the relevant analysis, and the outlook for future studies that will lead to a reduction in this failure. Touch on the chances of overcoming this failure.

General Guidelines:
1. 2000 words, double spaced, times new roman
2. 4 images/tables maximum
3. No less than 8 references; no more than 15 references
4. References must be from reputable journals (J. Nuclear Materials, Acta Materialia, etc.). You may only have 20 % of your references sourced from DOE or other federal agency or industry reports.
5. Format your references as they are formatted in the Journal of Nuclear Materials.
6. All figure/table captions should be included directly under or adjacent to the text.

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Materials used in nuclear reactors or power plants needs to be monitored regularly. Slight negligence can lead to catastrophic disaster and its side effects can last longer than a century. Thus these materials, most of them are super alloys of higher thickness need to be regularly monitored. The materials used in reactors goes through transformation like plastics will become brittle; Rubber will lose its strength, oil will become more viscous due to ionising radiation [1].
Tapping [2] mentioned the materials performance in CANDO reactors for the last 30 years. Most of the equipment was degraded via following means: flow accelerated corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, pitting, fatigue and environmentally assisted fatigue, fretting wear and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Flow accelerated corrosion affected feeder outlet pipes, Steam generator primary and secondary sides, and Brass condenser tubes.
This report will emphasis on the erosion-corrosion failure. Erosion corrosion comes under the category of flow accelerated corrosion and it occurs due to erosion of material by flow then exposed fresh surface is corroded leading to either thinning of wall or small holes. This type of attack can be recognised by appearance of metal surface, usually waves, gullies, valleys, grooves are noticeable. Czajkowski [3] conducted a in-depth analysis on the failure of 460 mm diameter feedwater line due to single phase erosion corrosion. This line was a suction line of feedwater pump to nuclear power plant. The line contained pressures of 2.5 MPa and temperature approximately 190ᴼC....
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