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(a) Draw and label the engineering stress-strain graph for ceramics, metals and polymers and indicate the level of toughness of this materials Predict the type of material suitable to be used to reduce the effect of sudden impact. Give reason [10 marks] (b) A rod with length of 0.15 m is subjected to an axial force of 34 kN. If the diameter of the rod 0.045 m. calculate: (i) Cross-sectional area of the rod. marks] (ii) Stress applied on the rod. [3 marks] (iii) Elongation and the final length of the rod if the strain measured is 0.017. [6 marks] (iv) Modulus of elasticity of the rod. [3 marks] (a) Illustrate the fracture behaviour of metals to show very ductile, moderate ductile and brittle. [6 marks] (b) Compare between brittle and ductile materials in terms of specific surface energy Select the preferred fracture mode between the two. Give one reason [9 marks] (c) A specimen of ferum oxide contains an internal crack of length 6x 104 m. with a tip radius of A stress of 40 MPa is applied to the specimen. Calculate the maximum stress produced at the tip of the crack. [5 marks] (d) Compute the critical stress required for the propagation of an internal crack of length 4 x 104m if the specific surface energy for aluminium oxide is 1.25 J/m² and elastic modulus 210 GPa. [5 marks]

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