Conduct a literature search using the ISI web of knowledge. Also include data graphs and figures. Please include all citation (references)
The topic is "Heat death of the universe".

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The heat death of universe is a state when the Entropy of a system goes maximum. Entropy is nothing but degree of disorder in a system, i.e., higher the entropy more the disorder in a system. From the Second law of Thermodynamics we can interpret that total entropy of any isolated system won’t decrease whatever the change is. The entropy will only increase. Since the earth is considered as a closed system in thermodynamics, the entropy of the earth is keep on increasing according to the second law. At one point of time the universe will reach a state of maximum entropy, i.e., all the higher energy moves towards lower energy. When this happens work is impossible to be extracted from any source of heat because the heat stops to flow. Thus the universe will get into a state of complete equilibrium and no work can be done. So the universe will be dead and impossible for humankind to continue their survival
We don’t have a clear knowledge about the universe i.e., we cannot confidently assert that external forces influencing the universe be considered as a system in thermodynamics. By second law of thermodynamics the ENTROPY of closed system always tends to maximum, since universe comes under the category of closed (isolated) system and if this was true, then the universe entropy will reach maximum and it will attain a state of equilibrium. Then no energy like heat, electrical, mechanical would be available for purpose. This critical state is known as HEAT DEATH OF UNIVERSE. Although we don’t have any proof ,this was the first concept to know the finiteness of the universe
The False believe that all energy in the universe should finally become any type of energy of thermal motion. Then all the energy would be distributed uniformly throughout
The universe and all big processes would come to halt.
This belief was hunched by R. Clausius by second law of thermodynamics. We know according to second law of thermodynamics ,the system existing in physical state won’t exchange their energy with other systems tending towards an stable equilibrium state that is a state of maximum entropy , this state is known as the heat death of universe.
Before the development of cosmology, many attempts were done in order to disapprove the idea in the heat death of the universe. The most important among that was the fluctuation hypothesis by L. Boltzmann. By considering his hypothesis he said that the universe is already in an isothermal state but by law of chance occurrences deviations occur from that equilibrium state at times in one place or another
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