Question 1: (6 marks)
Several codes and standards have been developed for pipeline design. Name the standards listed below against their abbreviated codes:
a) ASTM-B31.4
b) ASTM-B31.8
c) ASTM-A106
d) API-1104
e) AS-2885

Question 2: (6 marks)
Name three important aspects to be considered for pipeline construction regulations.
Question 3: (6 marks)
List six mechanical design parameters to be considered for piping calculation.
Question 4: (6 marks)
What are the important objectives of pipeline design & engineering?
Question 5: (9 marks)
Name six important thermodynamic and transport properties of gases and liquids.
Question 6: (6 marks)
Discuss the 4 types of pipelines used in the transport of gases and liquids.
Question 7: (6 marks)
Name six important factors that influence pipeline routing.
Question 8: (9 marks)
List nine environmental issues to be considered when planning for new pipeline construction.
Question 9: (4 marks)
Pipelines are subjected to certain forces which shall be considered during the design process. Name at least four of them.
Question 10: (6 marks)
Define the pump Affinity Laws and express them mathematically.
Question 11: (4 marks)
List four factors used as criteria in the selection of a gas compressor.
Question 12: (6 marks)
A 200mm DN pipeline has to deliver 80m³/h of water at a discharge pressure of 5,550kPa. Approximately how many pump stations would be needed for a pipeline 300km long?
Question 13: (12 marks)
A 4 kW motor is driving an oil pump with an efficiency of 95% down a 10 mm diameter pipe. If the velocity of the fluid down the pipe is 1.8 m/s:
a) What is the flow rate that the pump delivers?
b) What is the pressure that the pump can deliver?
c) The viscosity of the oil is v = 0.00001 m²/s. Is the flow in the pipe laminar or turbulent?
Question 14: (10 marks)
For a gas pipeline
a) Name two variables that have to be considered when optimizing the pipeline (2marks)
b) What are the key factors in deciding what the best spacing between compressor stations should be? (2marks)
c) Briefly describe the implications that the location of a gas pipeline to a community has when calculating pipeline wall thickness for a given design pressure. (6marks)
Question 15: (10 marks)
How many types of pipeline systems are constructed? Name the terminals and stations required for this purpose?
Question 16: (6 marks)
Describe the classification of Corrosion Mechanisms?
Question 17: (4 marks)
What are the 4 parts of a Corrosion cell?
Question 18: (6 marks)
What are the chemical and mechanical treatments used to prevent internal corrosion of pipelines?
Question 19: (6 marks)
What is a Biocide? Explain the use of it in protecting against internal corrosion.
Question 20: (6 marks)
What are the external coating process esavailable to prevent external corrosion?
Question 21: (6 marks)
How many types of Cathodic Protections are applied on a pipeline? Give a brief description of each.

Question 1
Which of the following is not covered by ASME B31.3 code.
1. Pressure vessels
2. Temperatures from ambient to 121ºC
3. Piping for all fluid services
4. Pressures above 105kPa (15psig)
5. Metallic and Non-metallic piping
Question 2
B31.4 does not apply to which of the following:
1. Storage and working tanks including pipe-type storage and piping interconnecting these facilities.
2. Auxiliary piping, such as water, air, steam, lubricating oil, gas, and fuel
3. Operation and maintenance aspects of liquid pipeline systems relating to the safety and protection of general public, operating personnel, environment, property and piping systems
4. Primary and associated auxiliary liquid petroleum and liquid anhydrous ammonia piping at pipeline terminals
Question 3
Overstressing in piping can result in:
1. Permanent deformation of the piping
2. Degradation of material with time
3. Lower creep rate
4. All of the Above
5. Fatigue related failures due to cyclic loading
6. Cracking and breakage of piping
Question 4
Sulphide stress cracking (hydrogen embrittlement) in pipelines, is caused by the presence of hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
Question 5
Which of these statements is false?
1. Modulus of elasticity of materials increases with increase in temperature
2. Direct measurement of stress is not possible
3. Modulus of Elasticity indicates the strength of the material
4. Modulus of elasticity is also referred to as “Young’s Modulus”
Question 6
The flexibility of piping systems cannot be increased by:
1. Installing expansion joints or bellows
2. Providing expansion loops
3. Providing supports and anchors
Question 7
Which of these statements regarding the coefficient of liner expansion is correct?
1. None of the above
2. All of the above
3. It is also defined as the thermal strain per unit temperature difference
4. It determines the extent of expansion or contraction in a material
5. It is the amount by which unit length of the material expands when the temperature is raised by 1º
Question 8
Identify the incorrect statement:
1. Tangential stresses act along the circumferential direction in a pipe
2. Longitudinal stresses act along the axis of the pipe
3. Tangential stress is also known as Hoop Stress
4. Hoop stresses act along the axis of the pipe
Question 9
What is the percentage mill tolerance that is normally provided to the calculated wall thickness as per the design equation?
1. 10%
2. 12.5%
3. 15%
4. 8%
Question 10
Which of these statements regarding piping system loads is incorrect?
1. Forces due to internal pressure are examples of primary loads.
2. Seismic loads are examples of primary loads
3. Secondary loads occur due to changes in system operating conditions
4. Primary loads are always present in the system
Question 11
The maximum allowable deflection or permitted deflection for buried pipes is:
1. 10%
2. 8%
3. 3%
4. 5%
Question 12
Which of the following factors influence “Design Temperature”?
1. Fluid temperature
2. Ambient heating/cooling
3. Solar radiation
4. All of the above

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Question 1
Which of the following is not covered by ASME B31.3 code.
1. Pressure vessels
2. Temperatures from ambient to 121ºC
3. Piping for all fluid services
4. Pressures above 105kPa (15psig)
5. Metallic and Non-metallic piping
Answer: 1. Pressure vessels...

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