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Drill string components Tool joint box F = member I I I I Il I Kelly I I I Drillpipe - I I I Drill pipe - I I - - - Heavy weight drill pipe - Drill collar Tool joint pin member Downhole tools Crossover sub MWD/LWD: Measurement and logging while drilling. Mud motor: Bit driving force in directional drilling. 1 I Etc. Drill collar I I Subs I II I T I Crossover: Connection size convertor I Float sub: To prevent drilling fluid backflow Jars: To transfer impact load 1 Bit sub - Shock subs: Impact load dampener Bit Bumper subs: Similar to Jar used in fishing operations Drill collar Thick-walled piped threaded (box and pin)on both ends for joints Drill collars provide weight on bit (WOB)without buckling of the drill string Most common sizes are 4 3/4" to 9 1/2" OD and 30- 31 feet long. Spiral collars are designed for better handling of stuck pipe and differential sticking events. Drill collar size selection Figure D1-12 Effective Hole Size vs Drill Collar Size Drift Diameter: Figure D1-12 Drift Diameter = 0.5 ( Bit OD + DC OD) Drift diameter must be large enough to allow for running the casing once drilling a section is completed. Therefore the minimum drill collar size would be: Min DC OD = 2x Casing Coupling OD - Bit OD IADC (2011) SIZES AND WEIGHTS (lbf/ft) OF NEW DRILL COLLARS [API Sec. 7] Drill-Collar ID, in Drill collar design OD, in. 1 1¹/4 1¹/² 1³/4 2 2¹/4 2¹/² 2 13/16 3 3¹/4 3¹/² 3³/4 4 27/8 19 18 16 3 21 20 18 Drill Collar size: 3¹/8 22 22.02 3¹/4 24 22.26 The operator usually aims for the largest 3¹/² 29 23.70 3³/4 33 33.25 possible OD collar since it provides: 4 40 39 37 35 32 29 4¹/8 43 41 39 37 35 32 More WOB per DC length 4¹/4 46 44 42 40 38 35 Better buckling resistance 4¹/² 51 50 48 46 43 41 4/4 54 52 50 47 44 5 61 59 56 53 50 Better survey control 5¹/4 68 65 63 60 57 5¹/² 75 73 70 67 64 60 5³/4 82 80 78 75 72 67 64 60 6 90 88 85 83 79 75 72 68 Use the following formula: 6¹/4 98 96 94 91 88 83 80 76 72 6¹/² 107 105 102 99 96 91 89 85 80 Min ODpc= 2 OD CC Db 6³/4 116 114 111 108 105 100 98 93 89 - 7 125 123 120 117 114 110 107 103 98 93 84 7¹/4 134 132 130 127 124 119 116 112 108 103 93 OD: Outer diameter 7¹/2 144 142 139 137 133 129 126 122 117 113 102 7³/4 154 152 150 147 144 139 136 132 128 123 112 DC: Drill collar 8 165 163 160 157 154 150 147 143 138 133 122 8¹/4 176 174 171 168 165 160 158 154 149 144 133 8¹/² 187 185 182 179 176 172 169 165 160 155 150 CC: casing Coupling 9 210 208 206 203 200 195 192 188 184 179 174 9¹/² 234 232 230 227 224 220 216 212 209 206 198 Db: Bit Diameter 9³/4 248 245 243 240 237 232 229 225 221 216 211 10 261 259 257 254 251 246 243 239 235 230 225 11 317 315 313 310 307 302 299 295 291 286 281 12 379 377 374 371 368 364 361 357 352 347 342 Drill collar design Fn- FD Fn - ED Drill Collar Length Vertical well: DC Length = DFDC X WOB / (BF X Wad Inclined well Neutrol Point DC Length = (DF) WOB / [BF X W dc X cos (phi)] Drill Pipe WOB = Weight on bit DFDC = Design factor (1.1-1.2) - Wac = Weight per unit length Neutral Point Loc phi = Wellbore inclination angle -Drill Collor BF= Buoyancy Factor = 1 - Fluid Density/Steel Density Fo (Sofe Rongel Fg(Too Lorge ) Example Solution Select the size and number of drill collar for Drill Collar size: the following drilling conditions. Min OD DC =2x7.625-8.75 - = 6.5 in. Hole size = 83/4 in. From the API Table: Casing size =7 in. with 75/8 in. coupling size OD =61/2 in.; ID =2in.; Weight = 102 lbf/ft WOB = 45,000 lbf Buoyancy Factor: Mud SG = 1.2 BF = 1 - Hole inclination =10 degrees Required Drill collar length: Design Factor = 1.2 1.2 X 45,000 L= = 634.6 ft 102 X 0.847 X cos 10 For 30ft drill collars: 634.6/30=21.15. Therefore, 22 drill collars are needed. Drill pipe 18° 24" Classified according to: B Elevator Upset Size (nominal OD) Diameter 3/8,27/8, 3¹/², 4, 4¹/², , 5, 5¹/², and 6 5/8 in. Wall thickness (or nominal unit weight) C Wear Section 26" Tabulated Upset Diameter Steel grade 31" D, E, X, G, S, V Nominal A Length Length ranges Nominal Size B Range 1: 16-25 ft Upset Diameter Range 2: 27-30 ft Range 3: 38-45 ft 24" 18° D Tool Joint OD Tool Joint The larger OD, high-strength, threaded ends of drill pipe. resilient against high cycles of tread connections tightening and loosening. Stronger than the pipe body and larger cross section Tongs engage at the tool joint manufactured separately and welded onto the pipe Internal Upset (IU), External Upset (EU), or Internal-External Upset (IEU). Last engaged thread-pin Shoulder Last engaged thread-box Dou d D Pou d D dou ou Pin Box IU EU Hardfaced Tong area area Minimum Performance Properties of Drill pipes [API Sec 7 (2001)] Drill pipe design Criteria OD Weight, Thickness ID Collapse Burst Tension Grade in lbf/ft in in psi psi 1,000 lb Mechanical 2.375 6.65 E 0.280 1.815 15,600 15,470 138 2.375 6.65 X 0.280 1.815 19,760 19,600 175 Tension 2.375 6.65 G 0.280 1.815 21,840 21,660 194 2.375 6.65 S 0.280 1.815 28,080 27,850 249 Collapse 2.875 10.40 E 0.362 2.151 16,510 16,530 214 Makeup torque/rotary torque 2.875 10.40 X 0.362 2.151 20,910 20,930 272 2.875 10.40 G 0.362 2.151 23,110 23,140 300 Dog leg severity 2.875 10.40 S 0.362 2.151 29,720 29,750 386 Slips crushing 3.5 9.50 E 0.254 2.992 10,040 9,520 194 3.5 13.30 E 0.368 2.764 14,110 13,800 276 Coupled design for ID regarding hydraulics 3.5 15.50 E 0.449 2.602 16,770 16,840 323 3.5 13.30 X 0.368 2.764 17,880 17,480 344 3.5 15.50 X 0.449 2.602 21,250 21,330 409 Economic: 3.5 13.30 G 0.368 2.764 19,760 19,320 380 Drill string cost 3.5 15.50 G 0.449 2.602 23,480 23,570 452 3.5 13.30 S 0.368 2.764 25,400 24,840 480 3.5 15.50 S 0.449 2.602 30,190 30,310 581 4 11.85 E 0.262 3.476 Logistics 8,410 8,600 231 4 14.00 E 0.330 3.340 11,350 10,830 285 Availability, HW drill pipe, Section I, Il Etc. 4 14.00 X 0.330 3.340 14,380 13,720 361 4 14.00 G 0.330 3.340 15,900 15,160 400 4 14.00 S 0.330 3.340 20,170 19,490 514

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