Based on the reading of the attachment (“Chapter 1: A Brief History of Radiation Bioeffects” by K.L. Mossman), answer the following.
a. Mutation was known to be the most important radiation health effect in the past. Explain why and what is the current scientific consensus on the mutational effect of radiation on humans.
b. Explain how the role of cancer as radiation health effect emerged and the current scientific consensus of the carcinogenic effect of radiation on humans.
c. Explain how the effect of radiation in prenatal development emerged and the current scientific consensus on the issue.

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a) Mutation was known to be the most important radiation health effect in the past because it helped to explore and investigate the nature of genetic material and mutagenic process, not only in plants, insects, animals but also in human body. Many indications showed that mutation caused harmful effects to human health.
The scientific community consented on a number of key points regarding to mutational effects of ionizing radiation on human body as follows:
Linear non-threshold dose-response model (Muller et al): there was no absolutely safe radiation dose; any radiation dose can cause mutations. Research on victims of atomic bombings in Japan during the World War II showed that there was emergence of leukemia and solid tumors in excess number among the victims at relatively low doses. This was the basic concept...

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