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Module 17 Assignment Questions You will find all the necessary information and formulas in the supplied notes and presentation material to complete this assignment. However you are encouraged to read widely and consult as many publications as possible including textbooks, manufacturer’s data sheets and any other literature where relevant. If you do use other reference material to assist in your answer make sure it is referenced. Please answer all the questions. Drawings or illustrations may be hand drawn and scanned. It is not necessary to write out long descriptions if you can suitably answer the question with a bullet list or a table. However, material that is cut and pasted is not acceptable. Please provide workings for any calculations. Module 17.1-Part-A (30 marks) Fundamentals of Renewable Energy QUESTION 1 (6 marks) a. Define a non-renewable energy source. b. Name two originating sources of renewable energy. c. Detail at least three types of energy derived from them. 1) Type your answer here 2) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 2 (6 marks) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of Renewable and Non-renewable energy sources. 3) Type your answer here 4) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 3 (3 marks) When considering the costs of a renewable energy facility, what would you take into consideration, and how do you expect these factors to differ in a non-renewable energy facility? 5) Type your answer here 6) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 4 (5 marks) Describe few economic benefits of using renewable energy instead of fossil fuel energy. 7) Type your answer here 8) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 5 (6 marks) What are the main environmental benefits of using solar energy for pumping? Name some other environmental benefits of solar pumping technology. 9) Type your answer here 10) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 6 (4 marks) Why should farmers seeking a diversification and invest in renewable energy? 11) Type your answer here 12) Assessor Feedback Module 17.1-Part-B (16 marks) Renewable Energy Applications QUESTION 7 (6 marks) Discuss the design and performance characteristics of collectors used in Solar Water heaters. 13) Type your answer here 14) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 8 (3 marks) A home owner would like to replace their existing electric hot water system with a solar water heater. Describe six factors they should consider when sizing the solar heater. 15) Type your answer here 16) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 9 (4 marks) List 4 types of cost effective energy efficiency improvements that a business can invest in. 17) Type your answer here 18) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 10 (3 marks) Name three hybrid energy systems and describe a scenario for each in which they might be selected to provide power. 19) Type your answer here 20) Assessor Feedback Module 17.2-Part-A (32 marks) Basic Photovoltaic (PV) System Design QUESTION 11 (4 marks) List the basic electrical design steps for a solar PV system. 21) Type your answer here 22) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 12 (4 marks) Examine the role of power electronics in PV applications. 23) Type your answer here 24) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 13 (3 marks) List the 3 basic attributes required for the operation of PV Cells. 25) Type your answer here 26) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 14 (5 marks) Define the following terms related to photovoltaic systems: Photovoltaic cells Photovoltaic modules Photovoltaic panels Photovoltaic arrays BOS QUESTION 15 (10 marks) A house has the following electrical appliance usage:  One 18 Watt fluorescent lamp with electronic ballast used 4 hours per day.  One 60 Watt fan used for 2 hours per day.  One 75 Watt refrigerator that runs 24 hours per day with compressor run 12 hours and off 12 hours.  The system will be powered by 12 Vdc, 110 Wp PV module.  Assume an average of 3.4 peak sunlight hours per day and 3days of autonomy. Size the PV system including, PV modules, Inverter, Battery, Solar charge controller. State all assupmptions. QUESTION 16 (6 marks) Describe the factors that affect PV system efficiency. 27) Type your answer here 28) Assessor Feedback Module 17.2-Part-B (25 marks) PV system Mechanical Design & Installation Issues QUESTION 17 (3 marks) Describe the factors that affect the amount of irradiation a surface receives from the Sun. 29) Type your answer here 30) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 18 (4 marks) List the main types of PV mounting systems. 31) Type your answer here 32) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 19 (6 marks) Describe the different types of rooftop solar PV systems. 33) Type your answer here 34) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 20 (4 marks) Describe the issues related to panel mounting of PV arrays on rooftops? 35) Type your answer here 36) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 21 (3 marks) Assume a roof-mounted PV array is to consist of two source circuits of four modules each. Assume the drawings are to scale and that the roof is large enough for any of the configurations shown. Which of the following configurations can be expected to result in the coolest operation of the modules? QUESTION 22 (5 marks) Discuss the factors which should be considered in PV system-mechanical design. 37) Type your answer here 38) Assessor Feedback Module 17.3-Part-A (36 marks) Basic Wind System Design QUESTION 23 (5 marks) What are the characteristics of a good wind power site and why are they important? 39) Type your answer here 40) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 24 (3 marks) What is the “Log Law”? Describe its purpose and generic formula and how it helps in planning wind power site location. 41) Type your answer here 42) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 25 (6 marks) Discuss how terrain complexity affects the performance of the wind resource. 43) Type your answer here 44) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 26 (6 marks) What factors must be included in the design process for site selection in a wind turbine project? 45) Type your answer here 46) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 27 (4 marks) Describe how winds are measured at a site. 47) Type your answer here 48) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 28 (6 marks) What techniques can be used for wind resource assessment? 49) Type your answer here 50) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 29 (6 marks) An offshore wind turbine generator situated at sea level has a rotor blade diameter of 100 metres. The air density is 1.23 kg/m3 . The turbine is rated at 5MW in 30mph (14m/s) winds. Calculate the power generated with a power coefficient of 0.25 51) Type your answer here 52) Assessor Feedback Module 17.3-Part-B (15 marks) Fundamentals of Turbine Technology QUESTION 30 (4 marks) Define “Aerodynamic Efficiency” and describe the components of its formula 53) Type your answer here 54) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 31 (5 marks) Sketch and name any 5 different types of wind turbine rotor. 55) Type your answer here 56) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 32 (6 marks) List the characteristics of a good wind turbine site and discuss their importance 57) Type your answer here 58) Assessor Feedback Module 17.4-Part-A (11 marks) Development of Renewable Energy Installation QUESTION 33 (5 marks) Describe the important cost breakdown of bid items required in a bid specification for a wind turbine project. 59) Type your answer here 60) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 34 (6 marks) Describe the key processes you will undertake while planning a small wind turbine project. 61) Type your answer here 62) Assessor Feedback Module 17.4-Part-B (9 marks) Operation and Management of Renewable Energy Installation QUESTION 35 (5 marks) Discuss the safety hazards you are likely to encounter during the construction phase of a wind turbine. 63) Type your answer here 64) Assessor Feedback QUESTION 36 (4 marks) List the environmental benefits of wind energy over conventional fossil fuel combustion. 65) Type your answer here 66) Assessor Feedback Question 1 How many types of renewable energy are there normally said to be? Select one: 1. 7 2. 2 3. 1 4. 10 Question 2 How do the economics of a nuclear power plant compare to a fossil-fuel power plant? Select one: 1. Though capital costs for a nuclear plant are high, tax incentives and credits put them on a par with fossil fuel plants. 2. Fossil fuel and nuclear power plants have roughly the same per kilowatt costs. 3. Fossil fuel plants are cheaper to build, but have higher ongoing fuel costs than nuclear. 4. Fossil fuel plants are cheaper to build, maintain and fuel, but nuclear power plants typically have higher nameplate capacities Question 3 Which of the following forces IS NOT driving renewable energy technologies? Select one: 1. Concern for the environment 2. Energy independence 3. Inflation proof fuel costs 4. Aggressive pursuit of higher quarterly corporate earnings Question 4 The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the flat-plate collector. Select one: True False Question 5 Which of these modules has the lowest Energy Payback Time (EPBT)? Select one: 1. Single crystal silicon 2. Cadmium telluride 3. Ribbon multi crystalline silicon 4. Non ribbon multi crystalline silicon Question 6 Why is silicon (Si), the principal element used in constructing solar cells? Select one: 1. Pure Si is a good conductor of electricity because the electrons are all locked in the crystalline structure 2. When light, in the form of photons strikes the Si cell, its energy frees electron-hole pairs 3. An atom of Si cell has 12 electrons, arranged in two different shells 4. The band gap energy in a Si cell is extremely high Question 7 Which component is essential for a rooftop PV system to work with mains voltage ac appliances? Select one: 1. An inverter 2. A rheostat 3. A charge controller 4. A battery Question 8 The function of blocking diodes in PV systems is to Select one: 1. Prevent the batteries from discharging on the modules during the night 2. Protect the batteries from short circuit 3. Both a and b 4. Neither a nor b Question 9 A PV system with 3 x 20Wp, 12V solar panels receives 4.2 PSH (peak sun hours) per day. This equates to a daily energy output of: Select one: 1. 84 Wh 2. 252 Wh 3. 720 Wh 4. 171.4 Wh Question 10 The maximum solar flux is received when perpendicular to and facing the Sun Select one: True False Question 11 Which of the following is not part of the mechanical design of a PV system? Select one: 1. Metering 2. Structural loads 3. Weather sealing 4. Shading Question 12 Common type of roof-mounted PV arrays include: Select one: 1. Pole mounts 2. Sun-tracking mounts 3. Trough mounts 4. Rack mounts Question 13 Which of the following load is not considered when designing a rooftop PV mechanical system? Select one: 1. Dead loads 2. Live loads 3. Atmospheric pressure loads 4. Seismic loads Question 14 Which of the following design issues can result in mechanical failure of a PV system? Select one: 1. Array frame corrosion 2. Incorrect wiring at the cable junctions 3. Incorrect fixing of the array frame 4. Answers a) and c) Question 15 Which of these is a problem with using wind as a power source? Select one: 1. It causes climate change 2. The wind does not blow all the time. 3. The turbines have to be sited close to the loads 4. Wind turbines need to be installed offshore

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Question 2:
The pros and cons of renewable energy vs the non-renewable energy might be formulated as below.
Pros of renewable sources of energy
1. Renewable sources of energy are renewable and easily regenerated. This is unlike fossil fuels which are perishable once used.
2. Renewable source of energy such as solar produce clean energy that does not pollute the environment. This is because no burning is required during usage of the energy.
3. Most importantly, renewable energy are available everywhere throughout the world thus there is no chance of the sources becoming depleted in future. For example, solar energy is everywhere as the sun will always be there every day.
4. Maintenance cost needed to install and use the renewable energy is relatively cheap. Solar energy can be trapped easily and used for domestic needs.
5. Renewable sources of energy boost economic growth and increase job opportunities. This includes electrical energy which is used to run many industries. Cons of renewable sources of energy Every set of energy has its own drawbacks once introduced to the ecology. Some of these limitations include
1. Difficult to produce the energy quantity that is equivalent to that produced by nonrenewable fuels
2. Technology required to trap renewable energy is costly. Setting of dams requires high initial capital to construct and maintain
3. Most renewable sources of energy are affected by weather thus reducing their reliability. For example, hydro generators need constant rainfall that will overflow the dams, wind turbines only rotate if there is wind of a given speed. Pros of nonrenewable sources of energy Some such as natural gas burns without any soot hence less environmental pollution.
1. Most nonrenewable sources of energy are easy to transport from one area to another. For example, petroleum oils which can be transported via pipes.
2. Cost of producing nonrenewable energy is low since they are naturally available. Furthermore, they are cheap to transform from one form of energy to another.
3. Most of this energy sources are abundantly available in different areas. Their availability is not affected by climatic condition. Cons of nonrenewable sources of energy
1. Produce harmful green house gases which contribute global warming. Coal once burnt produces carbon dioxide harmful to the environment.
2. Once they are depleted they cannot be replaced making them expensive to obtain.

Question 3:
The major factors for designing a renewable energy facility comprises of the consideration of Initial Cost and Pay Back Period. Unlike the non-renewable counterparts, a renewable energy facility demands much higher involvement of initial cost than the operating cost of the facility. The operating cost of a renewable energy plant comprises only the cost for scheduled maintenance and operating workforce, whereas a non-renewable energy facility includes its fuel cost.

Question 4:
Renewable Energy offers a range of economic benefits, such as:
a) The renewable energy industry supports new jobs.
b) Renewable energy development promotes investments in the economy
c) Renewable energy development outperforms fossil fuel in two important ways when it comes to driving job growth, firstly, Renewable energy development is preliminarily labor intensive, so it creates more jobs per dollar invested than fossil fuel resources. Secondly, installing renewable energy facilities primarily employs local workers, so investment dollars are kept in the local economy.
d) Local landowners are benefited from renewable energy development.
e) Renewable energy projects pay property and income taxes that help support states and local communities.
f) Renewable energy is a good deal for consumers.
g) There are scopes for development of new technologies through research and development.

Question 5:
There are number of benefits to be gained from solar pumping, which might be:
a) Solar-powered Water Systems are practical in flat terrain where the sun shines.
b) Solar-powered water pumps can be placed in or next to the pond or other source of water and the water can be pumped where it is needed.
c) Solar water pumping is clean and efficient.
d) Solar electric water pumping cuts down on waste because its based on natural cycles. The panels give the most pumping power on the sunniest days when the most water is needed.
e) Solar power is clean. There’s no need to worry about polluting the groundwater or air with a gas-powered pump.
f) Solar-powered water systems take very little maintenance because they only have a few moving parts. They have long life---usually 20 to 40 years. And solar water systems never run out of fuel as long as the sun is shining.
g) Solar pumping is a great solution for remote areas where the electricity line has not reached.

Question 6:
Some ideas for diversification for farmers in the sector of Renewable energy might be listed as below.
a) Many farmers already produce renewable energy by growing corn to make ethanol. An increasing number of farmers and ranchers are now adding to their incomes by harvesting the wind that blows across their land to make electricity.
b) Wind, Solar and biomass energy can be harnessed forever, which runs along with agriculture.
c) Biomass energy is produced from plants and organic wastes—everything from crops, trees, and crop residues to manure. Crops grown for energy could be produced in large quantities, just as food crops are. While corn is currently the most widely used energy crop, native prairie grasses such as switchgrass or fast-growing trees such as poplar and willow are likely to become the most popular in the future. These perennial crops require less maintenance and fewer inputs than do annual row crops such as corn, so they are cheaper and more sustainable to produce.
d) Solar pumping is a new solution for pumping, where the lifetime is much higher than any typical pumping system with the cleanest operation there is.

Question 7:
There are several types of Collectors for Solar water heaters. The design and performance characteristics are different for each of them.
In case of the Low temperature unglazed collectors that are typically used in swimming pools and such applications, the design considerations are based on the requirement of heat or the amount of water to be heated. That determines the quantity of black surface and tubes through which the water flows.
Concentrating collectors are used to concentrate sunlight onto an absorber tube or panel, allowing much higher temperatures to be achieved. The design considerations are mainly the curvature of the mirrors and the 1 or 2 axis tracking to follow the sun to ensure optimum reflection angle. Such collectors should be used in large volume projects.
The flat plate collectors are one of the most common collectors used widely. The basic design considerations are pretty much the same for all manufacturers. There varying design aspects matter to improve performance, make panels lighter, easier to install and suitable for different installation formats and ultimately impacts on cost, longevity and efficiency.
Besides all these types, there are also evacuated tube collectors. The main design considerations are on choosing if it will be single wall or double wall.

Question 8:
For sizing a solar heater for domestic use, the factors to be considered are:
a) No. of occupant
b) Water demand
c) Area of the collector
d) Size of the tank
e) Solar resource
f) Orientation and tilt of the solar collector...

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